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High-speed performance of a TDFA-band micro-ring resonator modulator and detector

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Abstract

We demonstrate a silicon-on-insulator micro-ring resonator (MRR) modulator and defect-mediated (DM) detector operating at a wavelength near 2 µm for use in the thulium doped fiber amplifier wavelength band. The MRR modulator was critically coupled with an unbiased notch-depth of 20 dB and Q-factor of 4700. The resonance shift under reverse bias was 23 pm/V with a calculated VπLπ of 2.2 to 2.6 V·cm from -1 to -8 V, respectively. Simulations are in good agreement with the measured data. The experimental modulation bandwidth was 12.5 GHz, limited by the response of the commercial external detector used for this measurement. The DM detector was operated in avalanche mode, had 1.97 µm wavelength responsivities of 0.04 and 0.14 A/W, and had bandwidths greater than 16 and 7.5 GHz at -15 and -30 V biases, respectively. Large-signal measurement demonstrated open eye-diagrams at 5, 10, and 12.5 Gbps for the DM detector and also for an optical link consisting of the modulator and detector integrated on the same silicon chip.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Silicon photonics is being employed to address the growing bandwidth requirements of today’s network infrastructure [1]. Multi-channel wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems offer high data transmission bandwidth leveraged with low-complexity intensity modulation (IM) / direct detection (DD) schemes which avoid the use of power-hungry digital signal processing (DSP) required for higher order modulation formats such as pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM) [2]. In dense WDM (DWDM) systems, the total data-transfer rate is limited by the finite number of channels that fit within the telecommunication bands which benefit from optical amplifiers such as the erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) and long-haul optical fibers. The mid-infrared (MIR) wavelength regime has become a promising solution to increase optical bandwidth by using a parallel window defined by the thulium doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical bandwidth, centered at 1.97 µm [3]. Advances in MIR components such as hollow-core photonic band gap fibers (HC-PBGFs) [4], silicon-on-insulator (SOI) Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) [5], and high-speed photodiodes [68], have made possible the realization of high-speed MIR transceivers. The defect-mediated (DM) silicon detector [9], which uses ion implantation to create optically-active defects which extend silicon’s absorption cut-off wavelength into the MIR, has demonstrated high-speed operation at 20 Gbps at a wavelength of 2 µm with the benefit of monolithic fabrication using standard SOI processing. Recent work has demonstrated a high-speed MZM operating within this optical bandwidth at 20 Gbps and the first demonstration of a micro-ring resonator (MRR) modulator operating at 3 Gbps in a hybrid carrier depletion and injection mode [10]. For the MRR modulator, an integrated driver was used to reduce RF reflection but high-speed performance is likely limited by the carrier recombination lifetime associated with operating in a hybrid carrier depletion/injection mode. Due to their enhanced sensitivity to changes in refractive index, MRR modulators are known to exhibit low switching energies, reaching single-digit fJ’s per bit under carrier-depletion operation [11], making them attractive for IM/DD schemes.

In the current work, we demonstrate a driverless MRR modulator with a 3 dB bandwidth of 12.5 GHz, limited by the external commercial detector used for this measurement, and a DM detector with a 3 dB bandwidth of 16 GHz. These two devices are used to demonstrate, for the first time, an on-chip MIR optical link operating at 12.5 Gbps. The design of each device is discussed, followed by steady-state and RF experimental results.

2. Design

The devices were fabricated at A$^{\star}$STAR IME (now AMF) using a 220 nm SOI platform. The MRR modulator and the DM detector will be discussed individually. The optical link features the MRR modulator followed by the DM detector approximately 2 mm downstream. The integrated link on-chip allows us to avoid excess insertion loss during characterization, while still demonstrating functionality.

2.1 Micro-ring resonator modulator

The MRR modulator consists of a 15 µm radius all-pass configuration with an integrated n+-p junction diode for optical modulation covering 86% of the ring. The waveguide width of 650 nm and junction offset of 150 nm toward the n+-type region is optimized for reverse bias modulation of the 1.97 µm fundamental TE$_{0}$ mode. The highly-doped n++- and p++-type regions in the 90 nm slab are separated from the waveguide ridge by 1 µm. The modulator also features a TiN heater for thermal resonance tuning and ground-signal-ground (GSG) electrodes for RF probing. An optical microscope image and cross-section of the MRR modulator are shown in Fig. 1.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) Optical microscope image of the MRR modulator and (b) cross-section of the MRR modulator across dashed cutline A-A’.

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2.2 Defect-mediated detector

The DM detector comprises an integrated p-i-n diode structure across a 1 µm wide, 750 µm long waveguide with a 90 nm slab. The separation of the highly-doped n++- and p++-type regions from the waveguide ridge is 300 nm, large enough to mitigate parasitic free-carrier absorption. A smaller separation, at the expense of increased parasitic absorption, is desirable for improved high-speed performance as it reduces the transit time of photo-generated free-carriers. Featured is a 2 µm wide, 750 µm long oxide window etch which leaves the silicon waveguide exposed for the introduction of optically-active defects through low energy ion implantation. The relatively wide oxide window, which was limited by fabrication, implies that defects from implantation may reside in the highly-doped slab region, adversely affecting electrical performance through trap sites. The device was implanted with boron ions at a dose of 1$\times$1013 cm-2 and energy of 70 keV introducing absorption in excess of 475 dB/cm, estimated by comparing transmission through unimplanted and implanted devices. An optical microscope image and cross-section of the DM detector are shown in Fig. 2.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) Optical microscope image of the DM detector and (b) Cross-section of DM detector across dashed cutline B-B’.

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3. Methods and experimental setup

3.1 Steady-state characterization setup

Steady-state characterization of the MRR modulator was performed by launching linearly polarized light from a 2 µm wavelength Sacher Lasertechnik tunable Littman/Metcalf laser source into a custom-built TDFA pumped by the output signal from an erbium-ytterbium doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) seeded by a 1.55 µm wavelength Agilent 81640A tunable single-line laser source. The signal was amplified to 10 dBm to overcome excess coupling loss while avoiding detrimental nonlinear self-heating effects which would destabilize the resonance or skew the spectral data during measurement. The light was then launched via cleaved fiber and grating coupler into the MRR modulator and collected by an external Thorlabs PDA10D InGaAs detector. The input polarization was adjusted using a manual polarization controller and the device bias was controlled through electrical probes connected to a Keithley 2400 Source Meter.

The DM detector was characterized by launching linearly polarized light from the same tunable laser source via tapered fibers and a nanotaper-coupler. The photocurrent was measured using electrical probes and a Keithley Source Meter.

3.2 RF characterization setup

Small-signal RF characterization of the MRR modulator was performed using the setup shown in Fig. 3. The MRR modulator was thermally stabilized using a thermo-electric cooler (TEC) and reverse biased using GSG RF probes, a Keithley Source Meter, and a bias tee. Small-signal S$_{21}$ measurements were performed using an Anritsu 37397C vector network analyzer (VNA) connected to the MRR modulator and an external EOT ET-5000F detector rated for a maximum bandwidth of 12.5 GHz. This external detector was measured independently using a setup similar to that shown in Fig. 4, which confirmed its bandwidth rating.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Small-signal setup for RF characterization of the MRR modulator.

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 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Small-signal setup for RF characterization of the DM detector.

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Large-signal RF characterization of the MRR modulator was performed; however, the electrical output from the external ET-5000F detector was insufficient for the oscilloscope to produce a clean eye-diagram due to the large input and output coupling losses of the MRR modulator near-resonance.

Small-signal RF characterization of the DM detector was performed using the setup shown in Fig. 4. The DM detector was reverse biased with ground-signal (GS) RF probes using the Keithley Source Meter and a bias tee. Small-signal S$_{21}$ measurements were performed using the VNA connected to an external Anritsu MP9681A electrical-optical (E/O) converter, rated for 40 GHz operation, modulating 1.55 µm linearly polarized light from an ANDO AQ4321D tunable single-line laser source amplified using an IPG Photonics EDFA. Characterization of the DM detector using 1.55 µm wavelength allowed extraction of properties using standard optical equipment. We reasonably assumed that electrical properties were independent of wavelength in the range of 1.55 to 2 µm.

Large-signal RF characterization of the DM detector was performed using the setup shown in Fig. 5. It is similar to the small-signal setup but with an Anritsu MP1800A bit pattern generator (BPG) providing a 2.5 V$_{\rm{p}-\rm{p}}$ pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS)-31 signal to the E/O converter and an Agilent Infiniium DCA-J 86100C oscilloscope measuring the DM detector output eye-diagram. An E/O converter for TDFA-band wavelengths was not available at the time of measurement; however, the use of 1.55 µm wavelength provided an uncompromised high-speed measurement of the DM detector. Similar dynamics are expected at both wavelengths despite the difference in measured responsivities.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Large-signal setup for RF characterization of the DM detector.

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Large-signal RF characterization of the on-chip optical link (MRR modulator + DM detector) was performed using the setup shown in Fig. 6. In this, the BPG sent the 2.5 V$_{\rm{p}-\rm{p}}$ PRBS-31 signal to the MRR modulator through the GSG RF probes and the oscilloscope measured the electrical output from the DM detector through the GS RF probes. Bias control was available for both the MRR modulator and the DM detector.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Large-signal setup for RF characterization of the on-chip optical link (MRR modulator + DM detector).

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4. Results

4.1 Micro-ring resonator modulator

Free-carrier losses from the n-, p-, n+-, and p+-type regions used in the modulator were measured using cut-back waveguide test structures. Undoped test structures were also measured to determine background waveguide loss. These loss measurements are shown in Fig. 7.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Free-carrier absorption in 2 µm wavelength doped waveguide test structures.

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The background waveguide loss was measured to be 1.2 dB/cm thus the background-subtracted losses for n-, n+-, p-, and p+-type dopants are 8.1, 166.4, 8.5, and 31.8 dB/cm, respectively. The cross-sectional free-carrier concentration profiles of these waveguide test structures were simulated in Silvaco’s Atlas and Athena and imported into RSoft’s FEMSIM suite through a custom MATLAB interpreter protocol. The protocol converts a 2-D mesh of electron and hole concentration profiles to material imaginary refractive index profiles through the process detailed in [12]. FEMSIM was then used to simulate the loss due to free-carrier interaction in the doped waveguide test structures. By adjusting the target dose in the simulated structures to match the free-carrier losses of each doping level, we can choose the appropriate dose to simulate the fabrication and characterization of the MRR modulator. The approximate simulated doping concentrations of the critical regions in the waveguide core are 4$\times$1017 and 3$\times$1018 cm-3 for the p- and n+-type regions, respectively. Free-carrier absorption for n++- and p++-type dopants could not be determined due to the excessive loss in the waveguide test structures. For simulations, we reasonably assume a doping concentration of 1$\times$1020 cm-3 for both, which is sufficient to form resistive contacts.

Steady-state characterization of the MRR modulator was performed by recording the device spectrum for increasing reverse bias voltages. The biased spectra and associated on-off extinction ratio, calculated by subtracting the unbiased spectrum from the biased spectra, are shown in Figs. 8(a) and (b), respectively.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. (a) MRR modulator biased spectra and from 0 to -8 V and (b) on-off extinction ratio for biases 0 to -8 V.

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The relatively constant notch-depths of the biased spectra indicate the MRR modulator is critically-coupled. The maximum on-off extinction ratio on the blue-side of resonance is slightly less than that of the red-side; however, the operating point for modulation is typically chosen on the blue-side to avoid detrimental self-heating effects which cause modulation instability [13].

The measured biased resonance shifts, shown in Fig. 9, were extracted from these biased spectra. Simulated and measured results are in good agreement.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Measured and simulated biased resonance shift. Inset shows contour plots of electron concentration in simulated device for 0 and -4 V bias.

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At low reverse bias voltages, the resonance shift is approximately 23 pm/V, while the Q-factors and notch-depths of the ring at 0 and -8 V, are 4700 and 5000, and 20.1, and 18.7 dB, respectively. At -1 and -8 V, the modulator has a VπLπ of 2.2 to 2.6 V$\cdot$cm, calculated as:

$$V_\pi L_\pi=\frac{V\cdot FSR\cdot\pi R}{\Delta\lambda},$$
where V is the applied bias, FSR is the measured free spectral range, R is the ring radius of 15 µm, and Δλ is the measured resonance shift relative to the unbiased condition.

To simulate the biased resonance shifts, the MRR modulator cross-section was created in Silvaco using the effective ion implantation doses determined from the measured free-carrier losses. The steady-state free-carrier profiles were simulated (see Fig. 9 inset) and used to determine the waveguide mode’s effective indices at each bias voltage using FEMSIM. The change in effective index can be equated to a resonance shift through:

$$\Delta\lambda=\Delta n_{eff}\frac{2\pi R}{m},\qquad m=1,2,3\dots$$
where $\Delta$n$_{eff}$ is the waveguide effective index change at a given voltage relative to the unbiased condition, and m is the resonant order nearest 1.97 µm wavelength (in this case, m = 112).

Due to the large difference in doping concentration between the p- and n+-type regions, the depleted region of the junction extends mostly toward the p-type region with increasing reverse bias. This presents a design trade-off between the junction offset and operating bias. The optical loss from the highly-doped n+-type region must also be taken into consideration. To examine this, the biased resonance shift was simulated while varying the junction offset. For low reverse bias, the optimal junction offset for efficient modulation begins at approximately 100 nm and quickly approaches 150 nm beyond -5 V bias. A junction offset of 0 nm has an unbiased optical loss of approximately 45 dB/cm, while offsets of 100 and 150 nm reduce this loss to 38 and 22 dB/cm, respectively. A bias of -5 V further reduces the optical loss by approximately 3 dB/cm at these junction offsets. The simulation of optimal junction offset in a p-n+ junction MRR modulator is crucial to maximize modulation efficiency and achieve the desired resonator coupling condition. Small-signal RF characterization of the MRR modulator yielded a 3 dB electrical bandwidth of greater than 12.5 GHz, limited by the bandwidth of the external ET-5000F detector. Figure 10 shows the small-signal response of the MRR modulator biased at -2 V with a resonance detuning of -540 pm, and the ET-5000F external detector.

 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. Small-signal RF measurement of the MRR modulator.

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The laser is resonance-detuned to enhance the the device bandwidth at the expense of modulation amplitude [14]. This bandwidth enhancement with detuning is governed by a dynamic phenomenon called optical peaking whereby a modulation signal with a rise-time comparable to the photon cavity lifetime of the ring will cause an overshoot in the device response due to the out-coupled light (when moving from on-resonance to off-resonance) experiencing a marginal wavelength shift and not immediately interfering with the light in the bus waveguide [15]. The choice of -540 pm resonance detuning was selected to maximize the device bandwidth while achieving a measurable electrical signal at the VNA, as well as to avoid modulation instabilities caused by self-heating which arise from positive resonance detuning [13]. Although the MRR modulator is limited by the external commercial detector’s bandwidth, we expect it to operate with higher bandwidth consistent with a similar design which demonstrated a bandwidth of greater than 17 GHz [16].

4.2 Defect-mediated detector

Steady-state characterization of the DM detector was performed by measuring the device dark current and photocurrent of edge-coupled test devices under increasing reverse bias for different laser input powers at both 1.97 and 1.55 µm wavelengths. The coupling losses of the nanotaper for each wavelength were measured using cut-back waveguide paperclip test structures, where the loss of a “zero-length” waveguide represents the relative insertion loss of the input and output nanotapers. The nanotaper insertion losses for wavelengths of 2 and 1.55 µm were measured to be 2.24 and 0.70 dB, respectively. The difference in coupling losses between the two wavelengths is primarily due to the difference in tapered fiber mode spot sizes as well as increased substrate leakage at longer wavelengths exacerbated by the narrow nanotaper width [17]. The results are shown in Fig. 11.

 figure: Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. (a) DM detector dark current and photocurrent for 1.97 µm wavelength with input power of 0.06 mW after coupling losses and (b) DM detector responsivities as a function of reverse bias voltage for both 1.97 and 1.55 µm wavelengths.

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The dark current remains relatively low despite the introduction of defects, including as the device begins to avalanche beyond -25 V, indicated by an exponential increase in current. Beyond a reverse bias of -30 V, the electric field strength becomes sufficiently high to risk catastrophic failure due to excessive current density resulting from electrical breakdown. The DM detector’s external responsivity at 1.97 µm wavelength is 0.04 and 0.14 A/W at -15 and -30 V, respectively. At 1.55 µm wavelength, the responsivity is 0.59 and 2.04 A/W at -15 and -30 V, respectively. The data shows improved performance at 1.55 µm over 1.97 µm wavelength as expected due to the mid-band gap nature of the optically-active divacancy defect [18].

Small-signal RF measurements of the DM detector yielded a 3 dB electrical bandwidth of greater than 16 GHz at a reverse bias of -15 V and a photocurrent of 150 µA, which corresponds to an input optical power of 0.25 mW at 1.55 µm wavelength. Greater reverse biases exhibit gain from avalanching but lower bandwidth by virtue of the gain-bandwidth trade-off [19]. The small-signal response results are shown in Fig. 12.

 figure: Fig. 12.

Fig. 12. (a) Small-signal measurement of the DM detector and (b) 3 dB electrical bandwidth at various voltages.

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The bandwidth of the DM detector increases with reverse bias up to -25 V due to the increase in electric field strength across the intrinsic region of the p-i-n diode which reduces carrier transit time. As the device enters the avalanche regime (for reverse bias > 25 V) the bandwidth begins to decrease by virtue of the gain-bandwidth product limit. Although this is a well-documented phenomenon, it has yet to be quantified for DM detectors. A detailed study will form the basis of a future paper.

Large-signal RF measurements were performed at a bias of -15 V where the highest electrical bandwidth was determined from the small-signal results. The input optical power was adjusted to keep the device photocurrent at approximately 1 mA, which corresponds to a coupled optical power of 1.7 mW at 1.55 µm wavelength. The BPG supplied a 2.5 V$_{\rm{p}-\rm{p}}$ PRBS-31 signal to the E/O converter at data rates of 5, 10, and 12.5 Gbps. This modulated signal was then received at the DM detector. The recorded eye-diagrams are shown in Fig. 13.

 figure: Fig. 13.

Fig. 13. Eye-diagrams for DM detector at -15 V bias for (a) 5 (b) 10, and (c) 12.5 Gbps PRBS-31 signals. Vertical (voltage) divisions are 17.5, 16.2, and 16.4 mV/div, respectively.

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Open eye-diagrams are observed at 5, 10, and 12.5 Gbps. Testing at higher data rates was not performed, but open eye-diagrams would be expected at higher data rates because the device dimensions are similar to previous work shown to operate with open eye-diagrams up to 20 Gbps at -15 V for a shorter PRBS length of 27-1 as opposed to the 231-1 in this work [9]. These results were obtained without the use of a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA).

4.3 On-chip optical link

Large-signal measurements of the on-chip optical link at TDFA-band wavelengths were performed with the MRR modulator reverse biased at -2 V and a PRBS-31 signal with a V$_{\rm{p}-\rm{p}}$ of 2.5 V supplied by the BPG. The insertion loss of the input grating coupler was approximately 10 dB, and the insertion loss of the MRR modulator depends on the operating wavelength and voltage. Near-resonance, this loss ranges from 10 to 20 dB. Reduction of this loss in a practical optical link would be of primary importance. The laser wavelength was blue-side detuned from resonance to maximize the eye-diagram extinction ratio while maintaining a central zero crossing. The DM detector was held at a larger reverse bias of -30 V to maximize the measured signal amplitude and the optical power was adjusted to maintain a photocurrent of 1 mA which corresponds to an optical power of 7.14 mW. The recorded eye-diagrams are shown in Fig. 14.

 figure: Fig. 14.

Fig. 14. Eye-diagrams for on-chip optical link for (a) 5 (b) 10, and (c) 12.5 Gbps PRBS-31 signals. Vertical (voltage) divisions are 9.2, 8.6, and 8.3 mV/div, respectively.

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Open eye-diagrams are observed at 5, 10, and 12.5 Gbps. The larger reverse bias of the detector results in lower electrical bandwidth, as seen in Fig. 12, which is evident in the eye-diagram quality beyond 5 Gbps. Impedance mismatch between the RF probes connecting the 50 Ω terminated measurement equipment and the device leads to large RF reflections which also negatively impacts the eye-diagram as this reduces the modulation signal power reaching the device. This could be remedied through the integration of a 50 Ω doped-silicon resistor in parallel with the MRR modulator [20]. Additionally, 50 Ω RF probes can be used in future measurements. As the DM detector electrical bandwidth at this voltage is limiting, the addition of a TIA would greatly improve the eye-diagram quality for the entire on-chip link by amplifying the received signal allowing the DM detector to operate at lower biases where the bandwidth increases and responsivity decreases. It should be noted that the small-signal measurements are not an adequate reflection of device performance in the large-signal regime due to the assumption of a linear response in the former. From Nyquist theory, the DM detector’s 3 dB bandwidth of $\sim$ 7.5 GHz translates to a maximum theoretical data rate transmission of 15 Gbps.

5. Conclusion

Doped waveguide test structures were measured and used to replicate fabrication doping conditions used by A$^{\star}$STAR IME. These fabrication conditions were then applied in the simulation of the MRR modulator using Silvaco in conjunction with RSoft’s FEMSIM. Steady-state characterization of the MRR modulator shows excellent modulation performance and good agreement with simulated results. The design trade-off between junction offset and modulation performance and waveguide loss was simulated using these conditions to show that the choice of 150 nm junction offset is optimal for maximized performance. RF performance of the MRR modulator was shown to be limited by the external detector but better performance is predicted. Steady-state measurements of the DM detector showed 1.97 µm wavelength responsivities of 0.04 and 0.14 A/W at -15 and -30 V, respectively. The DM detector exhibited a maximum electrical bandwidth of 16 GHz at -15 V and approximately half of this at -30 V. We have demonstrated the high-speed operation of a MIR SOI-based MRR modulator operating without an integrated modulation driver at a detector-limited bandwidth of 12.5 GHz. Combined in an optical link with a TIA-less high-speed detector operating with a maximum bandwidth of 16 GHz, open eye-diagrams up to 12.5 Gbps have been demonstrated. The on-chip optical link was shown to be limited by the DM detector and is expected to operate at higher speeds in a future design replacing the grating coupler input with a nanotaper which will significantly improve the signal amplitude reaching the DM detector allowing it to operate at lower biases and thus higher bandwidths. In future, measurements will be performed to explore the gain-bandwidth trade-off of the DM detector.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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References

  • View by:

  1. R. Won, “View from·· ·communication networks beyond the capacity crunch: is it crunch time?” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 424–426 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” in Broadband Access Communication Technologies X, vol. 9772B. B. Dingel and K. Tsukamoto, eds. (SPIE, 2016), p. 977207.
  3. Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800 - 2050 nm window,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26450 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavík, S. Member, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 104–113 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. A. Van Camp, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, P. M. Rice, T. Topuria, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Dong, W. Wang, S. Xu, D. Lei, X. Gong, X. Guo, H. Wang, S.-Y. Lee, W.-K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Two-micron-wavelength germanium-tin photodiodes with low dark current and gigahertz bandwidth,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15818–15827 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Chen, X. Zhao, J. Huang, Z. Deng, C. Cao, Q. Gong, and B. Chen, “Dynamic model and bandwidth characterization of InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells PIN photodiodes,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35034–35045 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. Huang, Z. Deng, and B. Chen, “High-speed uni-traveling carrier photodiode for 2 µm wavelength application,” Optica 6(7), 884–889 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S.-U. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 µm wavelength band,” Optica 5(9), 1055 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  11. E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. D. E. Hagan, M. Nedeljkovic, W. Cao, D. J. Thomson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “Experimental quantification of the free-carrier effect in silicon waveguides at extended wavelengths,” Opt. Express 27(1), 166 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Wang, D. J. Paez, L. Dow, and A. P. Knights, “Intrinsic resonance stabilization in depletion-type silicon micro-ring modulators,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 35–36.
  14. H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z. Wang, Y. Gao, A. S. Kashi, J. C. Cartledge, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon microring modulator for dispersion uncompensated transmission applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3675–3681 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2 µm,” J. Opt. 19(2), 025801 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  20. H. Yu and W. Bogaerts, “An equivalent circuit model of the traveling wave electrode for carrier-depletion-based silicon optical modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(11), 1602–1609 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

2018 (2)

2017 (2)

2016 (2)

2015 (3)

R. Won, “View from·· ·communication networks beyond the capacity crunch: is it crunch time?” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 424–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

Absil, P.

Ackert, J. J.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Alam, S.-U.

Assefa, S.

Azadeh, S. S.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Bradley, T. D.

Campbell, J. C.

Cao, C.

Cao, W.

Cartledge, J. C.

Chen, B.

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, Z. Xie, J. Huang, Z. Deng, and B. Chen, “High-speed uni-traveling carrier photodiode for 2 µm wavelength application,” Optica 6(7), 884–889 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Zhao, J. Huang, Z. Deng, C. Cao, Q. Gong, and B. Chen, “Dynamic model and bandwidth characterization of InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells PIN photodiodes,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35034–35045 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavík, S. Member, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. Numkam Fokoua, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, B. J. Mangan, R. Slavík, S. Member, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, D. J. Richardson, Y. Chen, Z. Liu, S. R. Sandoghchi, G. T. Jasion, T. D. Bradley, E. Numkam, J. R. Hayes, N. V. Wheeler, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Multi-kilometer long, longitudinally uniform hollow core photonic bandgap fibers for broadband low latency data transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(1), 104–113 (2016).
[Crossref]

Daniel, J. M. O.

Deng, Z.

DeRose, C. T.

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” in Broadband Access Communication Technologies X, vol. 9772B. B. Dingel and K. Tsukamoto, eds. (SPIE, 2016), p. 977207.

Dong, Y.

Dow, L.

Z. Wang, D. J. Paez, L. Dow, and A. P. Knights, “Intrinsic resonance stabilization in depletion-type silicon micro-ring modulators,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 35–36.

Gao, Y.

García, S. R.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F.

Gill, D. M.

Gong, Q.

Gong, X.

Gray, D. R.

Green, W. M. J.

Guo, X.

Hagan, D.

Hagan, D. E.

Hao, Y.

Hauck, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hayes, J. R.

Heidt, A. M.

Hosseini, E. S.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

Huante-Ceron, E.

Jasion, G. T.

Jessop, P. E.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Jung, Y.

Kang, Y.

Kashi, A. S.

Knights, A.

Knights, A. P.

D. E. Hagan, M. Nedeljkovic, W. Cao, D. J. Thomson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “Experimental quantification of the free-carrier effect in silicon waveguides at extended wavelengths,” Opt. Express 27(1), 166 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2 µm,” J. Opt. 19(2), 025801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, Y. Gao, A. S. Kashi, J. C. Cartledge, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon microring modulator for dispersion uncompensated transmission applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3675–3681 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. J. Paez, L. Dow, and A. P. Knights, “Intrinsic resonance stabilization in depletion-type silicon micro-ring modulators,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 35–36.

Lee, S.-Y.

Lei, D.

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” in Broadband Access Communication Technologies X, vol. 9772B. B. Dingel and K. Tsukamoto, eds. (SPIE, 2016), p. 977207.

Li, K.

Li, Z.

Littlejohns, C. G.

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Loke, W.-K.

Mangan, B. J.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Member, S.

Merget, F.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Morse, M.

Müller, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nedeljkovic, M.

Numkam, E.

Numkam Fokoua, E.

Paez, D. J.

Z. Wang, D. J. Paez, L. Dow, and A. P. Knights, “Intrinsic resonance stabilization in depletion-type silicon micro-ring modulators,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 35–36.

Paniccia, M. J.

Pantouvaki, M.

Pauchard, A.

Peacock, A. C.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825 (2014).
[Crossref]

Petrovich, M. N.

Poletti, F.

Reed, G. T.

W. Cao, D. Hagan, D. J. Thomson, M. Nedeljkovic, C. G. Littlejohns, A. Knights, S.-U. Alam, J. Wang, F. Gardes, W. Zhang, S. Liu, K. Li, M. S. Rouifed, G. Xin, W. Wang, H. Wang, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “High-speed silicon modulators for the 2 µm wavelength band,” Optica 5(9), 1055 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rice, P. M.

Richardson, D. J.

Rouifed, M. S.

Sandoghchi, S. R.

Shank, S. M.

Shen, B.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825 (2014).
[Crossref]

Simakov, N.

Slavík, R.

Sorace-Agaskar, C. M.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Topuria, T.

Van Camp, M. A.

Van Campenhout, J.

Wang, H.

Wang, J.

Wang, W.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, Y. Gao, A. S. Kashi, J. C. Cartledge, and A. P. Knights, “Silicon microring modulator for dispersion uncompensated transmission applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(16), 3675–3681 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, D. J. Paez, L. Dow, and A. P. Knights, “Intrinsic resonance stabilization in depletion-type silicon micro-ring modulators,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 35–36.

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, N. V.

Witzens, J.

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Won, R.

R. Won, “View from·· ·communication networks beyond the capacity crunch: is it crunch time?” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 424–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Z.

Xin, G.

Xu, S.

Yang, J.

Yeo, Y.-C.

Ying, D.

Yoon, S.-F.

Yu, H.

Zaoui, W. S.

Zhang, W.

Zhao, X.

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. (1)

D. E. Hagan and A. P. Knights, “Mechanisms for optical loss in SOI waveguides for mid-infrared wavelengths around 2 µm,” J. Opt. 19(2), 025801 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

E. Timurdogan, C. M. Sorace-Agaskar, J. Sun, E. S. Hosseini, A. Biberman, and M. R. Watts, “An ultralow power athermal silicon modulator,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

R. Won, “View from·· ·communication networks beyond the capacity crunch: is it crunch time?” Nat. Photonics 9(7), 424–426 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. J. Ackert, D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, A. C. Peacock, P. E. Jessop, G. T. Reed, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “High-speed detection at two micrometres with monolithic silicon photodiodes,” Nat. Photonics 9(6), 393–396 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

M. A. Van Camp, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, S. M. Shank, P. M. Rice, T. Topuria, and W. M. J. Green, “Demonstration of electrooptic modulation at 2165nm using a silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28009 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Dong, W. Wang, S. Xu, D. Lei, X. Gong, X. Guo, H. Wang, S.-Y. Lee, W.-K. Loke, S.-F. Yoon, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Two-micron-wavelength germanium-tin photodiodes with low dark current and gigahertz bandwidth,” Opt. Express 25(14), 15818–15827 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, X. Zhao, J. Huang, Z. Deng, C. Cao, Q. Gong, and B. Chen, “Dynamic model and bandwidth characterization of InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum wells PIN photodiodes,” Opt. Express 26(26), 35034–35045 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. E. Hagan, M. Nedeljkovic, W. Cao, D. J. Thomson, G. Z. Mashanovich, and A. P. Knights, “Experimental quantification of the free-carrier effect in silicon waveguides at extended wavelengths,” Opt. Express 27(1), 166 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, D. Ying, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, Y. Hao, J. Yang, and X. Jiang, “Trade-off between optical modulation amplitude and modulation bandwidth of silicon micro-ring modulators,” Opt. Express 22(12), 15178 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, L. Shen, J. J. Ackert, E. Huante-Ceron, A. P. Knights, M. Nedeljkovic, A. C. Peacock, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Optical detection and modulation at 2µm-2.5µm in silicon,” Opt. Express 22(9), 10825 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. S. Zaoui, H.-W. Chen, J. E. Bowers, Y. Kang, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, A. Pauchard, and J. C. Campbell, “Frequency response and bandwidth enhancement in Ge/Si avalanche photodiodes with over 840GHz gain-bandwidth-product,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12641 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, A. M. Heidt, N. Simakov, Y. Jung, J. M. O. Daniel, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Diode-pumped wideband thulium-doped fiber amplifiers for optical communications in the 1800 - 2050 nm window,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26450 (2013).
[Crossref]

Optica (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Müller, F. Merget, S. S. Azadeh, J. Hauck, S. R. García, B. Shen, and J. Witzens, “Optical peaking enhancement in high-speed ring modulators,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 6310 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

Z. Wang, D. J. Paez, L. Dow, and A. P. Knights, “Intrinsic resonance stabilization in depletion-type silicon micro-ring modulators,” in 2017 IEEE 14th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), (IEEE, 2017), pp. 35–36.

A. L. Lentine and C. T. DeRose, “Challenges in the implementation of dense wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) optical interconnects using resonant silicon photonics,” in Broadband Access Communication Technologies X, vol. 9772B. B. Dingel and K. Tsukamoto, eds. (SPIE, 2016), p. 977207.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Optical microscope image of the MRR modulator and (b) cross-section of the MRR modulator across dashed cutline A-A’.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Optical microscope image of the DM detector and (b) Cross-section of DM detector across dashed cutline B-B’.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Small-signal setup for RF characterization of the MRR modulator.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Small-signal setup for RF characterization of the DM detector.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Large-signal setup for RF characterization of the DM detector.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Large-signal setup for RF characterization of the on-chip optical link (MRR modulator + DM detector).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Free-carrier absorption in 2 µm wavelength doped waveguide test structures.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. (a) MRR modulator biased spectra and from 0 to -8 V and (b) on-off extinction ratio for biases 0 to -8 V.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Measured and simulated biased resonance shift. Inset shows contour plots of electron concentration in simulated device for 0 and -4 V bias.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Small-signal RF measurement of the MRR modulator.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. (a) DM detector dark current and photocurrent for 1.97 µm wavelength with input power of 0.06 mW after coupling losses and (b) DM detector responsivities as a function of reverse bias voltage for both 1.97 and 1.55 µm wavelengths.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. (a) Small-signal measurement of the DM detector and (b) 3 dB electrical bandwidth at various voltages.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Eye-diagrams for DM detector at -15 V bias for (a) 5 (b) 10, and (c) 12.5 Gbps PRBS-31 signals. Vertical (voltage) divisions are 17.5, 16.2, and 16.4 mV/div, respectively.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Eye-diagrams for on-chip optical link for (a) 5 (b) 10, and (c) 12.5 Gbps PRBS-31 signals. Vertical (voltage) divisions are 9.2, 8.6, and 8.3 mV/div, respectively.

Equations (2)

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V π L π = V F S R π R Δ λ ,
Δ λ = Δ n e f f 2 π R m , m = 1 , 2 , 3

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