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Design and verification of a LO bank enabled by fixed-wavelength lasers and fast tunable silicon ring filters for creating large scale optical switches

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Abstract

The fast and widely tunable wavelength bank is a key enabler in creating wavelength-routing optical switches that do not use fast wavelength tunable lasers. A cost-effective design criterion needs to be developed before it can be applied to intra data center networks. In this paper, we develop a systematic method for designing a wavelength bank that yields high port-count and fast wavelength-routing optical switches for intra data center application. The wavelength bank is created with fixed-wavelength laser sources and wavelength-tunable filters with rapid wavelength selectivity. To optimize the optical switching system that uses the wavelength bank for supplying local oscillator (LO) lights for coherent detection, various parameters are analyzed, including effective bandwidth, laser output power, loss distribution, splitter port count, and optical amplifier gain. We carry out numerical simulations for optimizing the tradeoff between system performance and cost. To verify the designed wavelength bank, a silicon ring filter is newly fabricated with an average fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 5.3 dB over a 22-nm bandwidth. Using 256-Gb/s DP-QPSK signals, experiments demonstrate a 1,024$\; \times \; $1,024 optical switch that uses a fabricated silicon ring filter. The effectiveness of the scalable and fast-tunable LO bank is verified by achieving 262.1-Tb/s switch throughput with switching time under 18 µs.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

With the rapid expansion of cloud computing and big-data analytics, datacenter-related traffic is increasing, the compound annual growth rate (CAGR) from 2016 to 2021 was 25% [1], and more than 75% of the traffic is processed within data centers [2]. Present data centers benefit from a fault tolerant and scalable electrical network that is formed by hierarchical electrical packet switches (EPSs), e.g. top-of-rack (ToR), aggregation (Leaf), and core (Spine) switches. Recent traffic explosion is outpacing progress in electrical switches and hence imposes harsh burdens on intra-data center networks in terms of bandwidth and power consumption, which makes it difficult for multi-tier EPS networks to scale out in response. Electrical-packet and optical-circuit hybrid switching networks can break the bandwidth and power barriers by effectively offloading large flows from electrical switches to optical switches [37]. High port-count optical circuit switches can replace most of the multi-tier EPS networks and create a single-tier transparent network above ToRs, which removes the innumerable electrical switches, optic-electric-optic (O/E/O) conversions and interconnection fibers [7]. Indeed, the flat network can reduce optical interconnection links and transponders by about 75% compared to a multi-tier EPS networks with the same bisection bandwidth, which yields a reduction in network power consumption of 65–75% [8].

High port-count and fast-switching capability will be a critical attribute for the wide adaption of optical switches in data centers. So far, microelectromechanical system (MEMS) or semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) switch has been extensively studied in terms of intra-data center applications, however, both requirements remain unsatisfied [911]. One viable solution is employing a wavelength-routing optical switch where input signals are delivered to arbitrary output ports. The one approach is to employ wavelength tuning of a source laser at input ports. Various types of such wavelength-routing optical switches have been studied, which includes using combinations of tunable laser diodes (TLDs)/wavelength converters and arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) [1214]. Recently, we have reported high port-count optical switches that perform routing in the two dimensions of space and wavelength [7,1517]. For instance, a combination of 32 ${\times} $ 32 space switches and 58 wavelengths yields the total port count of 1,856 ${\times} $ 1,856. Thus, this approach is highly attractive for realizing large-scale and fast optical switching. Wavelength routing can also be implemented using fixed wavelength lasers at input ports and using a tunable filter (TF) to select the desired input-port wavelength to reach the desired output port. For scaling wavelength-routing switches, important attributes for TLDs or TFs are (i) high-density integration, (ii) wide-range wavelength tunability, and (iii) fast wavelength-tuning capability. Compared to TLDs, TFs are very simple devices as discussed later and raise fewer concerns in terms of wavelength tunability change with time and can simplify initial setting for wavelength tuning [18,19]. Thus, in this paper we focus on wavelength routing using TFs.

The switch bandwidth and port count of the optical switches can be increased by using coherent technologies as they offer high spectral efficiency and receiver sensitivity (i.e., increased loss budget). Coherent transceivers are now widely adopted in metro and long-haul networks, and the substantial yearly reductions in cost, size, and power consumption [20] warrants their introduction to intra data centers in the near future. When we apply coherent technologies for TF-based switches that use fixed wavelength LDs at switch input, wavelength tunable local oscillators (LOs) are needed at the receiver side. To eliminate the use of TLDs as LOs, we proposed a large-scale and fast optical switch using wavelength bank configuration created with fixed-wavelength laser sources and Silicon-photonic tunable filters (TFs) [17]; optical filters are not used before optical receiver, as the switch uses tunable LOs for coherent detection (colorless coherent detection). It is expected to provide a practical and cost-effective solution since the LOs are shared with many switch ports. The performance of the wavelength bank including scalability was not analyzed in [17], and wavelength routing performance was tested using just two LOs. However, the quality of LO light strongly determines overall optical switch performance including achievable port count depending on modulation formats and available sharing number of the LO bank (port count of LO bank). Moreover, the performance and cost-effectiveness of the Silicon-photonic TF-based wavelength bank are determined by the mechanism used to distribute wavelength channels to output ports. The optimization requires analyses of the complex interactions among various system parameters (e.g., output port count, available wavelength number, optical amplifier power, degree of optical amplifier sharing, splitter loss, etc.). A design method needs to be established before we can clarify the combined effects of the parameter values and fully utilize the wavelength bank scheme.

Important parameters that determine wavelength bank performance are wavelength-tuning range and the speed which relies on which Silicon-photonic TFs are used. We have recently demonstrated a scalable and fast (within 3.5 µs [17]) optical switch system for coherent signals. It can cover the whole C-band (35 nm) with a wavelength bank that uses fixed-wavelength LDs and Silicon-photonic TFs consisting of multistage asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometers (MZI). Another group has reported a wavelength bank that employs silicon ring filters instead of MZIs [21], where thanks to simple thermal tuning of silicon ring filters, four channels spaced at 200 GHz were switched within 15 µs. Unfortunately, the limited tunable range (<10 nm) and high insertion loss (<18 dB) do not satisfy our requirements.

In this paper, we develop a design method and verify the applicability of the wavelength bank to scalable and fast wavelength-routing switches. The organization of the paper is as follows. Section 2 introduces the general concept of a hybrid switching network for intra-data center networks, and different configurations of optical switches and wavelength banks are discussed. Our proposed LO bank configuration is presented where amplification and wavelength distribution functions are arranged in a distributed manner to attain cost-effectiveness. Section 3 shows simulation results on port-count optimization for various LO bank configurations. A newly developed silicon ring filter is assumed that is tunable over 22 nm with average fiber-to-fiber insertion loss of 5.3 dB. The structure and basic characteristics of the fabricated Silicon ring filter are presented in Section 4. Experimental results are presented in Section 5 including those for different digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The developed LO bank was used to realize a 1,024$\; \times \; $1,024 optical switch system for 32-ch.$\; \times \; $256-Gb/s DP-QPSK signals. We confirm fast switching time ($< $18 µs) and bit error ratios (BERs) below 1$\; \times \; $10−3 for the 32 channels (resultant switch throughput of 262.1 Tb/s). The results verify our design method and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed wavelength bank. Preliminary experimental results were briefly reported at an international conference [22]. Section 6 summarizes this paper.

2. Large-scale optical switch system for intra data center networks

Figure 1 outlines an electrical and optical hybrid switching intra data center network that consists of multistage electrical switches and large-scale optical switches for top of rack (ToR) switch interconnections. Servers in a rack are connected with a ToR switch, and information is exchanged between racks using electrical switches or optical switches above the ToR switches. High port-count optical switches create a flat network allowing single-hop connections between ToRs and simplify the control mechanism. All switches are connected via a controller to manage routes of electrical packets and optical paths. Optical path control is realized by just the connectivity at the ingress and egress ports of optical switches, so simple and fast connection is achieved without tight time synchronization [23] or traffic adaption [24] unlike configurations previously studied. In addition, blocking probabilities can be reduced by means of optical switch parallelism which matches the trend in radix and bandwidth increase for merchant Silicon switch chips [25]. While control network design is beyond the scope of this paper, a recent study [26] demonstrated an asynchronous and decentralized control mechanism that yielded low latency (<20 µs) and low blocking probabilities (<10−6) for a large-scale (>2,000 ports) optical switching network. The system also heralds the use of coherent technologies for achieving the switch throughput needed to support future traffic growth [20].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Generic configuration of electrical and optical hybrid switch network.

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2.1 Configuration alternatives of the LO bank

As explained above, to create optical switches that use wavelength routing for coherent signals, we focus on TF based architectures, that is, LOs for coherent detection are configured using a wavelength bank and TFs for selecting each desired channel. With this configuration, a set of LDs is shared by many optical ports, which leads to cost-effective implementation of optical switches. Figure 2 shows generic configuration of the optical switch using coherent transmission and wavelength bank for LOs. Here we must note that an LO light must be fed to each coherent receiver through a polarization-maintaining fiber. A conventional coherent transponder includes an LD that generates LO light inside the module, while the wavelength bank configuration may complicate the module by feeding LO light from outside the module. However, recent switch chip bandwidth increases are increasing power consumption. This issue suggests that switch chip bandwidths above 25.6 Tb/s or 52.2 Tb/s will necessitate co-packaging with transceivers [2729]. The co-packaged switches can be powered by external lasers to improve reliability free from the power consuming electrical switch chip [30,31]. Thus, light feeds from outside the co-packaged switch may become a common technology when high bandwidth switch chips enter service.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Intra-data center wavelength-routing optical switch network that uses wavelength bank for transmitters or receiver LOs, where the bank is configured with (a) ToR, (b) PoD, (c) EoR, (d) MoR, (e) each optical switch, and (f) multiple optical switches.

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Various implementation alternatives are identified regarding the optical switch functional components that consist of coherent transmitters, receivers, and a wavelength bank. The four plausible configurations shown in Figs. 2(a) – 2(d) locate the wavelength banks close to the ToRs and away from optical switches. For these, coherent transceivers are located in ToR, end of row (EoR), or middle of row (MoR) switches. In Fig. 2(a), each ToR switch transports coherent signals by consolidating transceivers and a wavelength bank at each rack. This integration is advantageous because it reduces the number and length of fibers connecting between transceivers and the wavelength bank. The drawback of this configuration is the relatively high cost since a bank is dedicated to each rack. To reduce wavelength bank cost, increasing the sharing number is effective. In Fig. 2(b), one wavelength bank is shared with multiple racks within a point of delivery (PoD). If a PoD consists of P ToRs with Q transceivers, their product (P$\; \times \; $Q receivers) can be covered by one wavelength bank. Thus, the PoD configuration can be economical in terms of wavelength bank number, but needs additional short-reach fiber connections between the wavelength bank and ToRs. Recently, electrical switch chip bandwidth is evolving to reach 25.6 Tbps [32] which can accommodate many servers (e.g., 128 servers with 100 Gbps link speed) using multiple racks. In this case, one electrical switch is allocated to many server racks and is called EoR or MoR [33], as shown in Figs. 2(c) and 2(d). With this configuration, optical transceivers and wavelength banks are moved from ToR to EoR or MoR. These configurations balance the merits of ToR and PoD configurations, not only reducing fiber connection number but also increasing the wavelength bank sharing number. Thus, they are attractive configurations for the future data centers that uses high bandwidth merchant Silicon switches. Figures 2(e) and 2(f) offer the other configurations where a wavelength banks are placed as integrated in or placed near to optical switches. They simplify control of optical circuit connections by aggregating the optical components associated with wavelength routing. On the other hand, additional inexpensive non-coherent transceivers (AOCs: Active Optical Cables) are needed to connect optical switches and ToRs, where modulation format conversion between intensity-modulation (e.g., four-level pulse amplitude modulation) and coherent modulation may be performed. This needs additional one-hop connections compared to the transparent optical switching [e.g., Figs. 2(a) – 2(d)]. In Fig. 2(e), the wavelength bank is set in the optical switches/transceivers or in Fig. 2(f) it is connected with multiple optical switches/transceivers. The similar tradeoff exists regarding the size and cost as discussed in the ToR and PoD configurations. The above discussion denotes that each configuration has its own benefit, and the final choice should consider various conditions such as data center scale, the port count of wavelength banks, transceivers/fiber-links cost, and control aspects, which is out of scope of this paper. This paper analyses the performance of optical switches that use wavelength bank and TFs, which can be applied to any of the configuration presented here with marginal modifications.

2.2 High port-count and fast optical circuit switch

We overview a large-scale optical circuit switch created with a fast and widely-tunable LO bank. While the optical switch analyzed here assumes the combination of space switching and wavelength routing, the LO bank is applicable for any wavelength-routing switch type. Figure 3(a) illustrates our MN ${\times} $ MN optical switch architecture that uses coherent detection with a Silicon-photonic TF-based LO bank. The N-wavelength signals from fixed-wavelength transmitters are aggregated by an N ${\times} $1 multiplexer (MUX) and then distributed by a 1 ${\times} $ (N/S) splitter. After loss compensation by an erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA), the signals are distributed by a 1 ${\times} $ S splitter. Although the EDFA is a relatively expensive device, the per-port cost can be reduced by sharing many wavelengths (N) and output ports (S). One of the M distributed signal groups is selected by an M ${\times} $ M multicast switch (MCS) for space switching. The signal incident on the receiver is coherently detected by using an external LO light served from the LO bank. Wavelength routing is performed by tuning the LO wavelength that extracts the target signal from the N wavelengths. After coherent detection, the received signal is demodulated by means of digital signal processing (DSP).

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) MN${\times} $MN optical circuit switch based on large-pour-count LO bank, (b) Configuration of fast and widely-tunable LO bank for large-scale optical switch.

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A remarkable feature of the optical switch is that the LO bank supports a huge number of output ports. Figure 3(b) illustrates one configuration of the LO bank, as indicated in Fig. 2. An optical comb or N-wavelength LD signals are multiplexed and the WDM channels are broadcasted via a multistage distributor. The n-stage distribution is yielded by n-times propagation through 1 ${\times} $ $\sqrt[{n - 1}]{{MN/{S_L}}}$ splitters. After each splitter, the loss is compensated by an EDFA, the cost of which is shared by multiple ports ($\sqrt[{n - 1}]{{MN/{S_L}}}$ or SL). After the 1 ${\times} $ SL splitter, TF extracts the target LO wavelength. The TF output is amplified by a compact and low-cost preamplifier with uncooled-LD pumping, and then launched into the receiver. Thus, MN continuous wave (CW) lights, each with arbitrary wavelength, are realized by using only N LDs. Port-dedicated components are the TF and preamplifier; the others are shared by multiple ports. TF cost can be reduced by integrating many of them on a single silicon chip. Thus, LO lights are cost-effectively produced by taking advantages of the shared amplification and high-density photonic integration. The LO bank is applicable to any of the LO bank configurations shown in Fig. 2, where LO bank output port number (MN) is changed to suit the configuration adopted by altering the M value.

Another important characteristic is the switching performance (e.g., available wavelength range, tuning speed, etc.) determined by the TF. In this work, a novel silicon ring filter is developed in Section 4. By virtue of its high-speed and low-loss operations, we can realize a high port-count LO bank with fast and wide wavelength tunability. The distribution stage number (n) is optimized considering bank cost and performance, as is discussed in Section 3.

3. Analyses of LO bank performance

We investigate an optimal design method of the LO bank by analyzing the cost-performance tradeoff problem. The following analysis assumes the LO bank configuration shown in Fig. 2(e). The incident LO power on the receiver is an important metric as it determines the receiver sensitivity under the quantum noise (shot noise) limit. We first clarify how the LO power affects signal quality. Tested signals are 75-GHz-spaced 58-channel wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) signals in the C-band modulated by 256-Gb/s dual-carrier dual-polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QSPK). Each signal is Nyquist spectrally shaped by using a root-raised-cosine (RRC) filter with a roll-off factor of 0.05. Additive white Gaussian noise is loaded onto the signals to yield the received optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of 17 dB. The received signals are coherently detected with an LO light, where each input power varies according to the receiver’s dynamic range (differential output swing from 300 mVpp to 800 mVpp) specified by the Optical Internetworking Forum (OIF) [34]. Our model of a colorless coherent receiver without optical filtering before detection is used in the following simulations. The receiver parameters except for common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) are same as those used in the previous work [17]. CMRR is set at $- $30 dB under the assumption of a typical front-end specification. Figure 4 shows the calculated Q-penalty (i.e., the ratio of Q-factors between target and optimum LO powers) versus LO power input to the coherent receiver. The performance is degraded from optimum at 14 dBm due to the penalty stemming from colorless detection (i.e., self-beat interference from out-of-band channels in the coherent receiver) for higher LO power and added noise at the receiver for lower LO power. The Q-penalty reduces the port count of the optical switch [17], so it should be kept as small as possible. The LO power should be higher than 8 dBm to keep the Q-penalty within 1 dB.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. LO power dependence of Q2 penalty for 256-Gb/s dual-carrier DP-QPSK signals.

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The main purpose of the numerical design is to find a best balance between the output power (i.e., performance) and optical amplifier sharing number (i.e., cost) for the LO bank. We assess here the LO banks shown in Fig. 3(b), supporting 58 ${\times} $ M output ports using 58 fixed wavelength LDs (58-channel CW lights with 75-GHz channel spacing occupying 4,350 GHz in C-band). The LO banks are tested by calculating output and noise powers under the settings summarized in Table 1. TF insertion loss is set at 6 dB as derived from the measurement detailed in Section 4. The other parameters are based on realistic values of commercial products. Figure 5 plots the per-port LO output powers in dBm as a contour graph against space switch port count (M) on the horizontal axis and EDFA sharing number (SL) on the vertical axis. Three types of the LO bank configurations are investigated: (a) single-stage EDFA (n = 1) without preamplifiers, (b) two-stage EDFA (n = 2) without preamplifiers, and (c) single-stage EDFA (n = 1) with preamplifiers. In the case (a), the LO output power reduces gradually as the space switch port count (M) and EDFA sharing number (SL) increase. This is because the amplifier saturated gain is unable to compensate the excessive splitter losses resulting from larger M or SL. The dependency of the space switch port count can be alleviated by applying two-stage amplification as shown in Fig. 5(b). However, the output power saturates at around $- $3 dBm even for low M and SL, and the target value >8 dBm is unattainable for all port-count and sharing combinations. Regarding the LO bank configuration, the final-stage EDFA wastes most of the power since it contains only SL viable channels, the other N$- $SL (58$- $SL) channels are unused. In the case (c), the power restriction is solved by using preamplifiers after TFs, which is effective even when there is single-stage amplification before the TFs. As shown in Fig. 5(c), the improved output power exceeds 8 dBm when each parameter (M and SL) becomes less than 16. Please note that the preamplifier is small and cost-effective; for a single wavelength channel, no thermoelectric cooler is needed with saturation power of 17 dBm.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Per-port output power in dBm from an LO bank: (a) Single stage without preamplifiers, (b) Two stage without preamplifiers, and (c) Single stage with preamplifiers.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. Lists of design parameter for LO bank

Figure 6 also shows the power variations of per-port amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as a function of the space switch port count (M) and EDFA sharing number (SL) for each case. Similar to the results shown in Fig. 5, ASE noise is enhanced when EDFAs are shared by few output ports; in other words, per-port EDFA gain ascends as sharing number is reduced. The effect of increasing M follows a different trend from one shown in Fig. 5; larger port counts increase ASE noise at the EDFAs after the splitters (i.e., 1${\times} \sqrt[{n - 1}]{{MN/{S_\textrm{L}}}}$ splitter in Fig. 4). The increased M necessitates higher gain to compensate splitter losses for yielding the same LO output powers as for small M. Regardless of this tendency, the ASE noise power relative to the LO output power is sufficiently low and a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) of about 50 dB is achieved for all three cases with any M and SL. Preamplifiers are of greater significance in boosting LO output powers, thus they enable a high port-count LO bank with low Q-penalty. The per-port cost of costly EDFAs are $1/{S_L}$ and $1/\sqrt {MN/{S_L}} + 1/{S_L}$ for single-stage (n = 1) and two-stage (n = 2) amplification, respectively. While the discrepancy diminishes with increasing MN, smaller stage number (n) is preferable with respect to implementation simplicity.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Per-port ASE noise power in dBm from an LO bank: (a) Single stage without preamplifiers, (b) Two stage without preamplifiers, and (c) Single stage with preamplifiers.

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Regarding the proposed optical switch configuration shown in Fig. 3, we numerically examine system performance in terms of the achievable port count based on the above analyses. The simulation adopts a practical LO bank configured by single-stage EDFAs with preamplifiers [the case (c) of Figs. 5 and 6]. Table 2 lists the simulation parameters used for evaluating 58-ch.$\; \times \; $256-Gb/s DP-QPSK signals. We follow the LO bank and transceiver conditions identical to the numerical calculations of Figs. 46. For the optical switch, EDFA sharing number is set at 4 [S = 4, Fig. 3(a)] for cost-effectiveness (of course if smaller S values is used, we can expand available switch port count). Figure 7 shows available optical switch port count versus switch-side EDFA saturation power (PS) for different LO-side EDFA sharing numbers (SL) [see Fig. 3(b)]. The bit error ratio (BER) target of 10−3 was set to meet the 7%-overhead forward error correction (FEC) limit. As the sharing number becomes larger (SL $\ge $ 8), available port counts are reduced due to the reduced LO output power. With small sharing (SL $\le $ 2), the degradation in CNR due to excessive power loss stemming from the 1 ${\times} $ (MN/SL) splitter limits the optical switch scale. The best performance is observed at SL = 4 and a port count of 1,856 is attained at PS = 21 dBm. Through the numerical analysis discussed herein, we clarify a cost-effective design of the LO bank using cooperative amplification using shared EDFAs and low-cost preamplifiers.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Available port counts calculated at S = 4 and N = 58.

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Tables Icon

Table 2. System parameters employed for port-count analysis

The analyses presented above base the LO bank configuration shown in Fig. 2(e). However, the analytical procedures can be applied to the other configurations shown in Fig. 2 with marginal modifications. With the configurations shown in Figs. 2(a), 2(c), and 2(d), each rack/EoR/MoR switch has its own dedicated LO bank. Presently, the largest bandwidth of merchant Silicon switch chips is 25.6 Tb/s, and in the future, it can be increased to 102.4 Tb/s albeit the barriers will be high; liquid cooling or emersion cooling may be required. Even then, the number of transceivers for the switch is 512 for 200-Gb/s optical lane speed, much smaller than the above LO bank port number of 1,856. In case of Fig. 2(b), the above analysis will be directly applied when one LO bank is shared by three switch racks, or the sharing number can be expanded by appropriate modification (for example, LO-side EDFA saturation power is increased from 21 dBm to 23 dBm) or optimization.

4. Fabrication of a fast and widely-tunable silicon ring filter

To verify the technical feasibility of the LO bank, a widely-tunable TF was fabricated on a Silicon-photonic platform. Figure 8(a) presents the schematic of our Silicon-photonic TF with ring resonators. This configuration improves the cost-effectiveness and reduces the size compared to our previously developed TF composed of cascaded MZIs [35]. The filter is designed with two identical arms, each of which consists of two Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) switch elements and one ring resonator. The free spectral range (FSR) is inversely proportional to the diameter of the silicon ring filter. This means that a small ring radius (e.g., <3 µm) is necessary to ensure a broad FSR (e.g., >20 nm); unfortunately, the reduced bending radius incurs large insertion loss due to weak confinement of the light in the Si waveguide. In our ring resonator, the Vernier effect induced by the double-ring structure [36] is utilized to expand the FSR while suppressing the loss increase. The ring radius is set at approximately 20 µm to attain 22 nm FSR. The resonance wavelength is tuned by applying an electrical current to heaters placed on the ring resonators. The turbo-pulse heater control scheme is employed to boost the tuning speed [37]. When a wavelength transition is requested, the input/output switches select a currently unused arm. The selected arm is rapidly heated by the Turbo Pulses, so that switching time is determined by the heating up process, not the cooling down one which can need longer time.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. Newly fabricated silicon ring filter: (a) Structure, (b) overview image, and (c) magnified image of the fabricated filter chip. (d) Measured transmittance spectrum of the filter (ch28; 1547.72 nm) and (e) the passband (expanded) spectrum around 1548 nm. Power transition (f) without turbo pulse and (g) with turbo pulse.

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A microscopic images of the fabricated filter chip are shown in Figs. 8(b) and 8(c). The fabrication was carried out in our 300-mm-diameter silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer line equipped with an immersion ArF scanner. The filter chip occupies the area of 0.6 mm ${\times} $ 2.2 mm, which is less than one-sixth that of our previous TF composed of cascaded MZIs [35]. Figures 8(d) and 8(e) show the measured transmittance spectra of the fabricated ring filter when extracting an ASE light source at the center wavelength of 1547.72 nm (ch28). The measured 3-dB bandwidth and FSR were 0.14 nm and 22 nm, respectively. The passband wavelength is tunable in the C-band from 1,530 nm to 1,565 nm. The average fiber-to-fiber insertion loss over the C-band (35 nm) was 5.3 dB, which includes 1.9-dB on-chip loss and 3.4-dB coupling loss. The switching time was examined by passing two CW lights through the filter. The output was amplified by a low-cost optical preamplifier (LiComm µ-OA) and then captured by a photodetector (ThorLabs DET08CFC/M). Figures 8(f) and 8(g) plot measured power transitions without and with Turbo-pulse control; the wavelength was changed from 1,530 nm to 1,565 nm. The switching time is reduced by 75% to 18 µs by Turbo-pulse control. With the non-burst mode preamplifier, fast wavelength tuning (a few tens of microsecond) was observed during switching without notable waveform distortion.

5. Experiments

We conducted optical switching experiments to substantiate the effectiveness of the LO bank and silicon ring filters. The port-count analyses shown in Fig. 7 assumed the entire C-band (35 nm, N$\; = \; $58), however, the fabricated TF had the FSR of 22 nm (N$\; = \; $32) as noted in the previous section. Figure 9 shows the setup for the proof-of-concept experiment, where 32 ${\times} $ 256-Gb/s dual-carrier DP-QPSK signals were tested using a 32$\; \times \; $32 MCS (M$\; = \; $32); the emulated port count was 1,024$\; \times {\; }$1,024. In the experiment configuration, however, the maximum EDFA output level and splitter ratios were set such that they could encompass N$\; = \; $58 when the TF FSR is expanded to 35 nm.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Experimental setup at M = 32, N = 32, S = 4, and SL= 4.

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The transmitter had 64 LDs operating on a 37.5-GHz channel grid from 1,539.67 nm to 1,558.58 nm. The test and other channels were separately modulated using two IQ modulators (IQMs). Individual 50-GSa/s arbitrary waveform generators (AWGs) drove the IQMs to generate 32-Gbaud QPSK signals. After polarization division multiplexing emulators (PDMEs), the PDM signals were combined at an optical coupler to form a 75-GHz-spaced 32-channel DP-QPSK WDM signal as shown in Fig. 10(a). The transmitted signal was split by a 1 ${\times} $ 16 ($N/{S_\textrm{L}}$) splitter and amplified by an EDFA with saturation power of 21 (PS) dBm. The amplified signal was further distributed by a 1 ${\times} $ 4 ($S$) splitter and delivered to a 32 ($M$) ${\times} $ 32 ($M$) MCS in front of the receiver. Owing to the limitation of available equipment, the LO bank was created with eight sets of sub-banks; each sub-bank was made of eight LDs as shown in Fig. 10(b). Thus 64 LO wavelengths were supplied to the receiver by sliding the operating wavelengths of the sub-banks. The eight channels were aligned with 300-GHz spacing (4ch. ${\times} $ 75 GHz) to match the wavelength grid at the transmitter. To match the simulation procedure, the eight WDM channels were split by a 1$\; \times \; $512 ($MN/{S_\textrm{L}}$) splitter and further distributed by a 1$\; \times \; $4 (SL) splitter. The EDFA gain was adjusted such that the per-channel output power was same as that assumed for M$\; = \; $32, N$\; = \; $58, and SL$\; = \; $4. An identical channel to the target signal was extracted by the fabricated silicon ring filter. The worst measured crosstalk extracted from the LO spectrum was –24 dB [see Fig. 10(c)]. The extracted channel was adjusted by a preamplifier to yield the output optical power of 17 dBm prior to the receiver.

 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. Measured optical spectrum at (a) WDM transmitter, (b) wavelength bank, and (c) LO bank (ch28; 1547.72 nm).

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At the receiver, the incoming signal was coherently detected by mixing with the LO light in an optical front-end. No optical filter was placed before the receiver, i.e. colorless coherent detection was performed. The output signal was stored in a 50-GSa/s digital storage oscilloscope (DSO) and processed by offline DSP. As indicated in Fig. 11, the main DSP sequence incorporated resampling, clock recovery, polarization tracking, carrier phase recovery, adaptive (channel) equalization, and symbol decision (decoding). First, the digitalized signal was resampled to 64 GSa/s to two samples per symbol. To demultiplex the two-orthogonal polarizations, we applied a Stokes-vector algorithm to the twofold-oversampled signal [38]. The residual phase noise and carrier frequency offset were compensated by a Kalman filter algorithm [39]. After carrier phase recovery, adaptive equalization was performed by a T/2-spaced feed-forward/symbol-spaced (T-spaced) decision-feedback equalizer (FFE/DFE) with variable tap sizes. The adaptive equalizers (AEQs) consisted of four finite impulse response (FIR) filters with a butterfly structure; tap coefficients were updated using constant-modulus algorithm (CMA) or decision-directed least-mean square (DD-LMS) algorithm on the basis of the mean square error (MMSE) criterion [40]. Only receiver AEQ without pre-compensation was employed for channel equalization. Finally, we quantified system performance by calculating BERs after signal demodulation. The BERs were obtained from averaged results for both polarizations as well as iterative calculations for 3–5 different recordings using about one million bits per measurement.

 figure: Fig. 11.

Fig. 11. Schematic block diagram of the receiver digital signal processing (DSP). Ep: sampled complex amplitude after digital storage oscilloscope (p = x, y).

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To optimize the AEQ settings, we compared the performance difference between FFE and 31-tap FFE/DFE by sweeping the number of FIR filter taps. Figure 12 depicts BER dependence on tap numbers for two different equalizers. The tested wavelength was the central channel (1549.214 nm) of the WDM signal. With only FFE inserted, the curve shown by the dotted blue line, the BER ranged from 7$\; \times \; $10−3 to 1$\; \times \; $10−3. The optimum performance was achieved with the 31-tap FFE as indicated by the minimum BER of 1$\; \times \; $10−3. Since pre-compensation was not used, tap numbers of around 31 were imperative to obtain sufficient BER even in the back-to-back case. Although DSP implementation is beyond the scope of this paper, cooperative equalization between transmitter (pre-compensation) and receiver (post-compensation) is one viable option to reduce the FFE scale in the same way as is used in practical DSPs [41]. The slight intensity fluctuation shown in Figs. 8(f) and 8(g) creates a performance limit saturating the BER around 1$\; \times \; $10−3. To cope with this constraint, we equalize the remaining distortions by the DFE in conjunction with the 31-tap FFE. The curve with the 31-tap FFE/DFE smoothly descends as the number of DFE taps is increased, as evident by the BER falling from 8$\; \times \; $10−4 to 6$\; \times \; $10−4. Compared with the results in the only FFE case, the origin of the BER improvement stems from the robust tracking property which can better handle the fast variation in DFEs [42]. We chose the tap number of 51 for the DFE, considering the tradeoff between performance improvement and computational complexity. The number of DFE taps can be reduced or can be eliminated through a slight modification of the heater control method adopted by the fabricated ring filter.

 figure: Fig. 12.

Fig. 12. Measured BER versus feed forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) filer tap number at the central channel (1549.214 nm).

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Figure 13 plots the measured BERs for all 32 ${\times} $ 2 subcarriers with 31-tap FFE and 31-tap FFE/51-tap DFE. The results show the ensemble data with eight sets of LO sub-banks. With both equalizers applied, all channels achieved the BER below the 7%-overhead FEC threshold of 1 ${\times} $ 10−3. The added DFE assisted the 31-tap FFE overcoming the performance limits created by the temporal response of the fabricated filter; the averaged BER improved from 5.5 ${\times} $ 10−4 to 3.5 ${\times} $ 10−4. We speculate that the unexpected variation with wavelength may be due to frequency-dependent operation in our silicon ring filter. The ring diameters are enlarged when heated for long-wavelength filtering, that is, the 3-dB passband width may gradually change as the target channel shifts toward 1,559 nm. The local variation against frequency is caused by imperfect ring adjustment remaining after manual heater-current control. This problem can be resolved by more accurate control of effective ring diameters through automatic heater adjustment. Consequently, we have confirmed the feasibility of 1,024 ${\times} $ 1,024 (i.e. M = 32 and N = 32) optical switching with total throughput of 262.1 Tb/s (1,024 ${\times} $ 1,024 at 256 Gb/s). The demonstration emulated the optical splitter and amplifier parameters so that N = 58 is possible. A port-count of 1,856 will be achieved by expanding the TF FSR to 35 nm, which is our next work to be addressed very soon.

 figure: Fig. 13.

Fig. 13. Measured BERs for all 32 ${\times} $ 2 subcarriers with (a) 31-tap FFE and (b) 31-tap FFE/51-tap DFE.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

6. Conclusions

In the hybrid switching network discussed in this paper, most of the traffic can be handled by an optical fast circuit switching network. The high port-count optical switches provide single-hop interconnection between any communicating nodes (e.g., ToRs) yielding reduced and deterministic latency (in circuit switching) without the long-tail problem experienced in multi-tier electrical packet networks [25]. To realize such an optical switch, wavelength routing plays a key role, which is realized by using wavelength TLDs or TFs. TLDs with fast switching capability are not mature enough to permit practical deployment; issues with long-term reliability (wavelength stability) and the necessary complicated testing must be resolved. Given this background, a combination of a wavelength bank and TFs that can cost-effectively replace the TLD function will be viable. This paper investigated the applicability of TF-based optical switches using coherent detection where tunable LOs are supplied from a wavelength bank. The available performance depends on various parameters of the optical switch, and our analyses clarified the effect of each parameter value. The design principle can be applied to suit the different configurations discussed in the paper. Furthermore, recent developments in co-packaged optics will, along with related module technology advances, enhance the application of external lasers. To verify the design presented herein, we created an LO bank using a newly fabricated silicon ring filter that allows high integration for future cost reduction. An experiment successfully demonstrated 262.1-Tb/s switch bandwidth (1,024 ${\times} {\; }$ 1,024 at 256 Gb/s) and switching times under 18 µs. We did not discuss control aspects of the optical switch network, which is out of the scope of this paper, as they are discussed elsewhere [26].

Funding

New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (JPNP16007).

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Mr. E. Honda for his help with the experiment.

Disclosures

All the authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

References

1. Cisco System Inc., “Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2016–2021,” White paper, Cisco System Inc. (2017).

2. Cisco System Inc., “Cisco global cloud index: Forecast and methodology, 2015–2020,” White paper, Cisco System Inc. (2016).

3. N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

4. G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

5. K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.

6. S. Spadaro, “Control plane architectures for photonic packet/circuit switching-based large scale data centres,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), Paper Tu.3H.3.

7. K. Sato, “Realization and application of large-scale fast optical circuit switch for data center networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(7), 1411–1419 (2018). [CrossRef]  

8. K. Sato, “How optical-circuit/electrical-packet hybrid switching will create high performance and cost-effective data center networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2019), Paper Th.D1.4.

9. W. Mellette, G. Schuster, G. Porter, G. Papen, and J. Ford, “A scalable, partially configurable optical switch for data center networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 136–144 (2017). [CrossRef]  

10. R. Stabile, A. Albores-Mejia, and K. Williams, “Monolithic active-passive 1616 optoelectronic switch,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4666–4668 (2012). [CrossRef]  

11. Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. Penty, and I. White, “The feasibility of building a 64 × 64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2015), pp. 199–201.

12. Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: An AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600409 (2013). [CrossRef]  

13. K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013). [CrossRef]  

14. N. Terzenidis, M. Moralis-Pegios, G. Mourgias-Alexandris, T. Alexoudi, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “High-port and low-latency optical switches for disaggregated data centers: the Hipoλaos switch architecture,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(7), B102–B116 (2018). [CrossRef]  

15. Y. Mori, M. Ganbold, and K. Sato, “Design and evaluation of optical circuit switches for intra-datacenter networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(2), 330–337 (2019). [CrossRef]  

16. E. Honda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Feasibility test of large-scale (1,424 × 1,424) optical circuit switches utilizing commercially available tunable lasers,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (2019), Paper WA1-3.

17. R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021). [CrossRef]  

18. K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

19. Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011). [CrossRef]  

20. X. Zhou, R. Urata, and H. Liu, “Beyond 1 Tb/s intra-data center interconnect technology: IM-DD or coherent?” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(2), 475–484 (2020). [CrossRef]  

21. A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.

22. R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

23. D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.

24. M. Szczerban, N. Benzaoui, J. Estarán, H. Mardoyan, A. Ouslimani, A. Kasbari, S. Bigo, and Y. Pointurier, “Real-time control and management plane for edge-cloud deterministic and dynamic networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 12(11), 312–323 (2020). [CrossRef]  

25. K. Sato, “Design and performance of large port count optical switches for intra data centre application,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2020), Paper Tu.C3.2.

26. K. Sato, “How optical technologies can innovate intra data center networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE the 30th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (2021), Invited Session 5.

27. A. Björlin, “Silicon Photonics Platform Solutions,” J.P. Morgan 19th Annual Tech/Auto Forum (2021).

28. A. Zilkie, “High bandwidth Si Photonics and Co-Packaged Optics: Opportunities and Challenges,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Workshop 12-2.

29. L. Dennison, “AI & ML Systems and Co-Packaged Photonics,” OIDA Workshop on Developments in Co-Packaging Technologies for Data Centers (2021).

30. C. Minkenberg, N. Farrington, A. Zilkie, D. Nelson, C. Lai, D. Brunina, J. Byrd, B. Chowdhuri, N. Kucharewski, K. Muth, A. Nagra, G. Rodriguez, D. Rubi, T. Schrans, P. Srinivasan, Y. Wang, C. Yeh, and A. Rickman, “Reimagining datacenter topologies with integrated silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(7), B126–B139 (2018). [CrossRef]  

31. M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

32. Broadcom Inc., “Broadcom Ships Tomahawk 4, Industry’s Highest Bandwidth Ethernet Switch Chip at 25.6 Terabits per Second,” Financial news release (2019).

33. C. Wu and R. Buyya, Cloud data centers and cost modeling: A complete guide to planning, designing and building a cloud data center, 1st ed. (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2015).

34. Optical Internetworking Forum, “Implementation agreement for micro intradyne coherent receivers,” OIF-DPC-MRX-02.0 (2017).

35. M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018). [CrossRef]  

36. J. Hulme, J. Doylend, and J. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013). [CrossRef]  

37. H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

38. B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Exp. 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010). [CrossRef]  

39. T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter,” Opt. Exp. 22(13), 15376–15387 (2014). [CrossRef]  

40. S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory, 5th Ed. (Pearson Education, London, 2013).

41. C. Laperle and M. Sullivan, “Advances in High-Speed DACs, ADCs, and DSP for Optical Coherent Transceivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 629–643 (2014). [CrossRef]  

42. D. George, R. Bowen, and J. Storey, “An adaptive decision feedback equalizer,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 19(3), 281–293 (1971). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. Cisco System Inc., “Cisco visual networking index: Forecast and methodology, 2016–2021,” White paper, Cisco System Inc. (2017).
  2. Cisco System Inc., “Cisco global cloud index: Forecast and methodology, 2015–2020,” White paper, Cisco System Inc. (2016).
  3. N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.
  4. G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.
  5. K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.
  6. S. Spadaro, “Control plane architectures for photonic packet/circuit switching-based large scale data centres,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2013), Paper Tu.3H.3.
  7. K. Sato, “Realization and application of large-scale fast optical circuit switch for data center networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(7), 1411–1419 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Sato, “How optical-circuit/electrical-packet hybrid switching will create high performance and cost-effective data center networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2019), Paper Th.D1.4.
  9. W. Mellette, G. Schuster, G. Porter, G. Papen, and J. Ford, “A scalable, partially configurable optical switch for data center networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 136–144 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  10. R. Stabile, A. Albores-Mejia, and K. Williams, “Monolithic active-passive 1616 optoelectronic switch,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4666–4668 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. Penty, and I. White, “The feasibility of building a 64  ×  64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2015), pp. 199–201.
  12. Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: An AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Terzenidis, M. Moralis-Pegios, G. Mourgias-Alexandris, T. Alexoudi, K. Vyrsokinos, and N. Pleros, “High-port and low-latency optical switches for disaggregated data centers: the Hipoλaos switch architecture,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(7), B102–B116 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Mori, M. Ganbold, and K. Sato, “Design and evaluation of optical circuit switches for intra-datacenter networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(2), 330–337 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  16. E. Honda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Feasibility test of large-scale (1,424  ×  1,424) optical circuit switches utilizing commercially available tunable lasers,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (2019), Paper WA1-3.
  17. R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.
  19. Y. Ding, M. Pu, L. Liu, J. Xu, C. Peucheret, X. Zhang, D. Huang, and H. Ou, “Bandwidth and wavelength-tunable optical bandpass filter based on silicon microring-MZI structure,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6462–6470 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. X. Zhou, R. Urata, and H. Liu, “Beyond 1 Tb/s intra-data center interconnect technology: IM-DD or coherent?” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(2), 475–484 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  21. A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.
  22. R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.
  23. D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.
  24. M. Szczerban, N. Benzaoui, J. Estarán, H. Mardoyan, A. Ouslimani, A. Kasbari, S. Bigo, and Y. Pointurier, “Real-time control and management plane for edge-cloud deterministic and dynamic networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 12(11), 312–323 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  25. K. Sato, “Design and performance of large port count optical switches for intra data centre application,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2020), Paper Tu.C3.2.
  26. K. Sato, “How optical technologies can innovate intra data center networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE the 30th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (2021), Invited Session 5.
  27. A. Björlin, “Silicon Photonics Platform Solutions,” J.P. Morgan 19th Annual Tech/Auto Forum (2021).
  28. A. Zilkie, “High bandwidth Si Photonics and Co-Packaged Optics: Opportunities and Challenges,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Workshop 12-2.
  29. L. Dennison, “AI & ML Systems and Co-Packaged Photonics,” OIDA Workshop on Developments in Co-Packaging Technologies for Data Centers (2021).
  30. C. Minkenberg, N. Farrington, A. Zilkie, D. Nelson, C. Lai, D. Brunina, J. Byrd, B. Chowdhuri, N. Kucharewski, K. Muth, A. Nagra, G. Rodriguez, D. Rubi, T. Schrans, P. Srinivasan, Y. Wang, C. Yeh, and A. Rickman, “Reimagining datacenter topologies with integrated silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(7), B126–B139 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  31. M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.
  32. Broadcom Inc., “Broadcom Ships Tomahawk 4, Industry’s Highest Bandwidth Ethernet Switch Chip at 25.6 Terabits per Second,” Financial news release (2019).
  33. C. Wu and R. Buyya, Cloud data centers and cost modeling: A complete guide to planning, designing and building a cloud data center, 1st ed. (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2015).
  34. Optical Internetworking Forum, “Implementation agreement for micro intradyne coherent receivers,” OIF-DPC-MRX-02.0 (2017).
  35. M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. Hulme, J. Doylend, and J. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.
  38. B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Exp. 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  39. T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter,” Opt. Exp. 22(13), 15376–15387 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  40. S. Haykin, Adaptive filter theory, 5th Ed. (Pearson Education, London, 2013).
  41. C. Laperle and M. Sullivan, “Advances in High-Speed DACs, ADCs, and DSP for Optical Coherent Transceivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 629–643 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  42. D. George, R. Bowen, and J. Storey, “An adaptive decision feedback equalizer,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 19(3), 281–293 (1971).
    [Crossref]

2021 (1)

2020 (2)

2019 (1)

2018 (4)

2017 (1)

2014 (2)

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter,” Opt. Exp. 22(13), 15376–15387 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Laperle and M. Sullivan, “Advances in High-Speed DACs, ADCs, and DSP for Optical Coherent Transceivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(4), 629–643 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

J. Hulme, J. Doylend, and J. Bowers, “Widely tunable Vernier ring laser on hybrid silicon,” Opt. Express 21(17), 19718–19722 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: An AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
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D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.

Andersen, D.

G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

Anderson, E.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Ardalan, S.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

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M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Ballani, H.

D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.

Bazzaz, H.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

Beheshtian, B.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Benjamin, J.

D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.

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A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.

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Buchbinder, S.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

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M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Chanz, N.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Chao, P.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Chen, K.

K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.

Chen, Y.

K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.

Cheng, Q.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. Penty, and I. White, “The feasibility of building a 64  ×  64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2015), pp. 199–201.

Chowdhuri, B.

Costa, P.

D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.

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Ding, M.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. Penty, and I. White, “The feasibility of building a 64  ×  64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2015), pp. 199–201.

Ding, Y.

Doylend, J.

Duan, G. H.

A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.

Eachempatti, H.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Estarán, J.

Fainman, Y.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

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C. Minkenberg, N. Farrington, A. Zilkie, D. Nelson, C. Lai, D. Brunina, J. Byrd, B. Chowdhuri, N. Kucharewski, K. Muth, A. Nagra, G. Rodriguez, D. Rubi, T. Schrans, P. Srinivasan, Y. Wang, C. Yeh, and A. Rickman, “Reimagining datacenter topologies with integrated silicon photonics,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 10(7), B126–B139 (2018).
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N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

Ford, J.

Frey, J.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Funnell, A.

D. Alistarh, H. Ballani, P. Costa, A. Funnell, J. Benjamin, P. Watts, and B. Thomsen, “A high-radix, low-latency optical switch for data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2015), pp. 367–368.

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Y. Mori, M. Ganbold, and K. Sato, “Design and evaluation of optical circuit switches for intra-datacenter networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(2), 330–337 (2019).
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M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
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D. George, R. Bowen, and J. Storey, “An adaptive decision feedback equalizer,” IEEE Trans. Commun. 19(3), 281–293 (1971).
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K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
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E. Honda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Feasibility test of large-scale (1,424  ×  1,424) optical circuit switches utilizing commercially available tunable lasers,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (2019), Paper WA1-3.

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E. Honda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Feasibility test of large-scale (1,424  ×  1,424) optical circuit switches utilizing commercially available tunable lasers,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (2019), Paper WA1-3.

Huang, D.

Hulme, J.

Ikeda, K.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
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M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
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H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

Inoue, T.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
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T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter,” Opt. Exp. 22(13), 15376–15387 (2014).
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R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

Jan, E.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Kaminsky, M.

G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

Kasbari, A.

Katzin, A.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Kawashima, H.

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

Khilo, A.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Kita, D.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Konoike, R.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

Kozuch, M.

G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

Krishnamoorthy, U.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Kucharewski, N.

Lai, C.

Laperle, C.

Li, C.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Liepvre, A.

A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.

Liu, H.

Liu, L.

Lu, H.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Luna, F.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Madden, C.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Maho, A.

A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.

Mardoyan, H.

Marshall, T.

B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Exp. 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, R.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

Matsuura, H.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

Meade, R.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Mellette, W.

Minkenberg, C.

Moralis-Pegios, M.

Mori, Y.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Mori, M. Ganbold, and K. Sato, “Design and evaluation of optical circuit switches for intra-datacenter networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(2), 330–337 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

E. Honda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Feasibility test of large-scale (1,424  ×  1,424) optical circuit switches utilizing commercially available tunable lasers,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (2019), Paper WA1-3.

Mourgias-Alexandris, G.

Muth, K.

Nagai, H.

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nagra, A.

Namiki, S.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Inoue and S. Namiki, “Carrier recovery for M-QAM signals based on a block estimation process with Kalman filter,” Opt. Exp. 22(13), 15376–15387 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

Nebendahl, B.

B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Exp. 18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D.

Ng, T.S.

G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

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Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: An AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
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K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
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M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Olivier, S.

A. Liepvre, R. Brenot, G. H. Duan, S. Olivier, and A. Maho, “Fast tunable silicon ring resonator filter for access networks,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2015), Paper Tu3E.5.

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Ouslimani, A.

Papagiannaki, K.

G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

Papen, G.

W. Mellette, G. Schuster, G. Porter, G. Papen, and J. Ford, “A scalable, partially configurable optical switch for data center networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 136–144 (2017).
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N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

Patel, M.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Penty, R.

Q. Cheng, M. Ding, A. Wonfor, J. Wei, R. Penty, and I. White, “The feasibility of building a 64  ×  64 port count SOA-based optical switch,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2015), pp. 199–201.

Peucheret, C.

Pleros, N.

Pointurier, Y.

Porter, G.

W. Mellette, G. Schuster, G. Porter, G. Papen, and J. Ford, “A scalable, partially configurable optical switch for data center networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(2), 136–144 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

Proietti, R.

Y. Yin, R. Proietti, X. Ye, C. J. Nitta, V. Akella, and S. J. B. Yoo, “LIONS: An AWGR-based low-latency optical switch for high-performance computing and data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(2), 3600409 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pu, M.

Radhakrishnan, S.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

Ramachandranz, K.

K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.

Ramamurthy, C.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Raval, M.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Rickman, A.

Robberson, K.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Rodriguez, G.

Roucka, R.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Rubi, D.

Rust, M.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Ryan, M.

G. Wang, D. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T.S. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “C-Through: Part-time optics in data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 327–338.

Sato, K.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Mori, M. Ganbold, and K. Sato, “Design and evaluation of optical circuit switches for intra-datacenter networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 37(2), 330–337 (2019).
[Crossref]

K. Sato, “Realization and application of large-scale fast optical circuit switch for data center networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 36(7), 1411–1419 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Sato, H. Hasegawa, T. Niwa, and T. Watanabe, “A large-scale wavelength routing optical switch for data center networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(9), 46–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Honda, Y. Mori, H. Hasegawa, and K. Sato, “Feasibility test of large-scale (1,424  ×  1,424) optical circuit switches utilizing commercially available tunable lasers,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching and Computing (2019), Paper WA1-3.

K. Sato, “How optical-circuit/electrical-packet hybrid switching will create high performance and cost-effective data center networks,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2019), Paper Th.D1.4.

K. Sato, “Design and performance of large port count optical switches for intra data centre application,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (2020), Paper Tu.C3.2.

K. Sato, “How optical technologies can innovate intra data center networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE the 30th International Conference on Computer Communication and Networks (2021), Invited Session 5.

R. Matsumoto, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, T. Inoue, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Large-scale and fast optical circuit switch for coherent detection using tunable local oscillators formed with wavelength bank and widely-tunable silicon ring filters,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication (2020), Paper Th1J.2.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

Schrans, T.

Schuster, G.

Sedgwick, F.

M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

Singhz, A.

K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.

Singlay, A.

K. Chen, A. Singlay, A. Singhz, K. Ramachandranz, L. Xuz, Y. Zhangz, X. Wen, and Y. Chen, “OSA: An optical switching architecture for data center networks with unprecedented flexibility,” in Proceedings of 9th USENIX Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (2012), pp. 239–252.

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M. Wade, E. Anderson, S. Ardalan, W. Bae, B. Beheshtian, S. Buchbinder, K. Chang, P. Chao, H. Eachempatti, J. Frey, E. Jan, A. Katzin, A. Khilo, D. Kita, U. Krishnamoorthy, C. Li, H. Lu, F. Luna, C. Madden, L. Okada, M. Patel, C. Ramamurthy, M. Raval, R. Roucka, K. Robberson, M. Rust, D. Van Orden, R. Zeng, M. Zhang, V. Stojanovic, F. Sedgwick, R. Meade, and N. Chanz, “An Error-free 1 Tbps WDM Optical I/O Chiplet and Multi-wavelength Multi-port Laser,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2021), Post deadline paper F3C.6.

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Subramanya, V.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” in Proceedings of Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Data Communications (2010), pp. 339–350.

Suda, S.

K. Suzuki, K. Tanizawa, S. Suda, H. Matsuura, K. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Sato, S. Namiki, and H. Kawashima, “Polarization-independent C-band tunable filter based on cascaded Si-wire asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” in Proceedings of OptoElectronics and Communications Conference/International Conference on Photonics in Switching (2016), Paper ME1-2.

H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

Sullivan, M.

Suzuki, K.

R. Matsumoto, T. Inoue, R. Konoike, H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, Y. Mori, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, and K. Sato, “Scalable and fast optical circuit switch based on colorless coherent detection: design principle and experimental demonstration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(8), 2263–2274 (2021).
[Crossref]

M. Ganbold, H. Nagai, Y. Mori, K. Suzuki, H. Matsuura, K. Tanizawa, K. Ikeda, S. Namiki, H. Kawashima, and K. Sato, “A large-scale optical circuit switch using fast wavelength-tunable and bandwidth-variable filters,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(16), 1439–1442 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. Matsuura, K. Suzuki, S. Suda, K. Ikeda, H. Kawashima, and S. Namiki, “Fast frequency tuning of silicon-photonic thermo-optic MZI filters using ‘Turbo Pulse’ method,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (2018), Paper M4H.2.

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Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Generic configuration of electrical and optical hybrid switch network.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Intra-data center wavelength-routing optical switch network that uses wavelength bank for transmitters or receiver LOs, where the bank is configured with (a) ToR, (b) PoD, (c) EoR, (d) MoR, (e) each optical switch, and (f) multiple optical switches.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) MN${\times} $MN optical circuit switch based on large-pour-count LO bank, (b) Configuration of fast and widely-tunable LO bank for large-scale optical switch.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. LO power dependence of Q2 penalty for 256-Gb/s dual-carrier DP-QPSK signals.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Per-port output power in dBm from an LO bank: (a) Single stage without preamplifiers, (b) Two stage without preamplifiers, and (c) Single stage with preamplifiers.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Per-port ASE noise power in dBm from an LO bank: (a) Single stage without preamplifiers, (b) Two stage without preamplifiers, and (c) Single stage with preamplifiers.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Available port counts calculated at S = 4 and N = 58.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Newly fabricated silicon ring filter: (a) Structure, (b) overview image, and (c) magnified image of the fabricated filter chip. (d) Measured transmittance spectrum of the filter (ch28; 1547.72 nm) and (e) the passband (expanded) spectrum around 1548 nm. Power transition (f) without turbo pulse and (g) with turbo pulse.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Experimental setup at M = 32, N = 32, S = 4, and SL= 4.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Measured optical spectrum at (a) WDM transmitter, (b) wavelength bank, and (c) LO bank (ch28; 1547.72 nm).
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Schematic block diagram of the receiver digital signal processing (DSP). Ep: sampled complex amplitude after digital storage oscilloscope (p = x, y).
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Measured BER versus feed forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) filer tap number at the central channel (1549.214 nm).
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Measured BERs for all 32 ${\times} $ 2 subcarriers with (a) 31-tap FFE and (b) 31-tap FFE/51-tap DFE.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Lists of design parameter for LO bank

Tables Icon

Table 2. System parameters employed for port-count analysis

Metrics

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