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Hollow-core anti-resonant fiber based light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy for gas sensing

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Abstract

In this paper, a hollow-core anti-resonant fiber (HC-ARF) based light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy (LITES) sensor is reported. A custom-made silica-based HC-ARF with length of 75 cm was used as light medium and gas cell. Compared to a traditional multi-pass cell (MPC), the using of HC-ARF is advantageous for reducing the sensor size and easing the optical alignment. A quartz tuning fork (QTF) with a resonant frequency of 32766.20 Hz and quality factor of 12364.20 was adopted as the thermoelastic detector. Acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) with absorption lines located at 6534.37 cm−1 (1530.37 nm) and 6380.30 cm−1 (1567.32 nm) were chosen as the target gas to verify such HC-ARF based LITES sensor performance. It was found that this HC-ARF based LITES sensor exhibits excellent linearity response to the analyte concentrations. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for C2H2 and CO detections were measured as 4.75 ppm and 1704 ppm, respectively. The MDL for such HC-ARF based LITES sensor can be further improved by using a HC-ARF with long length or choosing an absorption line with strong strength.

© 2022 Optica Publishing Group under the terms of the Optica Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Trace gas sensing is widely used in various fields such as environmental monitoring, manned spaceflight, life sciences and combustion diagnosis [16]. Compared with non-optical techniques of electrochemical and semiconductor sensors, optical sensing methods have the advantages of fast response, online measurement, high selectivity and sensitivity, and so on [711].

Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is an extensively adopted technique in optical gas sensing fields due to its merits of zero background and wide dynamic range [12,13]. In 2002, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS), an improvement to the traditional microphone based PAS, was firstly reported [14]. In QEPAS, a quartz tuning fork (QTF) is used as an acoustic wave transducer. Due to the high quality factor, narrow response frequency band and tiny size of QTF [1518], QEPAS is recognized as an advanced optical gas sensing technique with the advantages of excellent detection performance, strong noise suppression capability and compact volume [1922]. However, QTF should be immersed in the target gas, which means that QEPAS is a contact measurement method. This feature limit its application in corrosive or acidic gases measurement because the performance of resonance characteristic and quality factor of QTF will be degraded when the QTF exposures to the such environment [2325].

QEPAS technique not only has the limitation on its range of application in gas species, but also does not allow for remote and standoff trace gas detection. In 2018, light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy (LITES) was firstly reported to effectively solve the above issues [26]. In LITES, after passing through the target gas, a laser beam is irradiated on the surface of QTF and the laser energy is absorbed by the quartz crystal. The QTF produce a thermoelastic deformation after being heated by the laser absorption [27,28]. Due to the laser modulation the QTF form a periodic mechanical vibration, and this vibration is enhanced because of the resonant characteristic of QTF. On the basis of piezoelectric effect, an electrical signal is generated from the mechanical vibration of QTF, which is used for retrieving concentration of the target gas. In LITES, a QTF can be placed far from the analyte [29,30]. Therefore, LITES can be a non-contact measurement method and used for remote trace gas detection [31,32]. Due to these merits, LITES technique has been widely adopted in various trace gases detection [3335].

In LITES technique, in order to improve the laser absorption, a multi-pass cell (MPC) is usually used [36,37], where the optical path length is extended to tens meters. However, in that situation, the LITES sensor is bulky due to the large size of a MPC and a large number of optical elements needed for laser beam alignment. Furthermore, plenty of used optical components reduce the system stability of the sensor. Hollow-core anti-resonant fiber (HC-ARF) has become popular in the field of sensing recently. On the one hand, HC-ARF has significant advantages in nearly single-mode transmission, low optical loss and wide spectral range. In addition, its design that the ring of silica capillaries around a hollow core can effectively suppress the mode interference between the core mode and other cladding modes [38]. On the other hand, it typically contains a tiny hollow core in the central region, where propagates light modes and can confine the gas sample within the hollow core simultaneously [39]. In the hollow core, the gas samples could interact with the light perfectly. Compared to a MPC, a HC-ARF with a low optical transmission loss provides merits of reducing the size and easing the optical alignment for an optical sensor.

In this paper, a compact LITES sensor based on HC-ARF was reported. A custom-made silica-based HC-ARF was used as light medium and gas cell. A QTF with a resonant frequency f0 of 32.768 kHz was adopted. Acetylene (C2H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were chosen as the target gas to verify such HC-ARF based LITES sensor performance. Two diode lasers with emission wavelength of 1530 nm and 1567 nm were used as the excitation source for C2H2 and CO detection, respectively.

2. Experimental setup

2.1 HC-ARF characteristics

The custom-made HC-ARF used in this research is a 75 cm long piece formed by a single layer of seven nontouching silica capillaries. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of its cross section is shown in Fig. 1(a). The HC-ARF has an outer diameter of 220 µm and a hollow core with inscribed inner diameter of 57 µm. The thickness of glass wall of 0.63 µm ensures its operation in the first anti-resonance band covering from 1.45 µm to at least 2.4 µm, as shown in Fig. 1(b), which is limited by the optical spectrum analyzer. This covers all the wavelength used in this experimental investigation.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. HC-ARF characteristics. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of cross section of the used HC-ARF. (b) Transmission spectrum of the HC-ARF.

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2.2 HC-ARF based LITES sensor configuration

The experimental schematic of HC-ARF based LITES sensor is shown in Fig. 2. Two fiber-coupled, distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers with emission wavelength of 1530 nm and 1567 nm were selected as an excitation source, respectively. Firstly, the output light of the diode laser was collimated by a convex lens (L1), and then the beam was transmitted to a focusing lens (L2) with a focal length of 60 mm. The laser beam was reshaped and could couple into the HC-ARF easily. The fiber was fixed in a designed gas cell, which was installed with a calcium fluoride (CaF2) window for optical access and placed on a six-dimensional translation mount for precise adjustment. Since the LITES signal is directly proportional to the absorption length, a HC-ARF with a length of 75 cm was employed to realize long absorption path. The coupling efficiency of the HC-ARF was about 81% at 1.5 µm. Two absorption lines located at 6534.37 cm−1 with line strength of 1.21×10−20 cm−1/(cm−2×mol.) and 6380.30 cm−1 with line strength of 2.18×10−23 cm−1/(cm−2×mol.) were chosen for C2H2 and CO detection, respectively. A QTF with a resonance frequency f0 of 32.768 kHz (in vacuum) was utilized as the thermoelastic detector. The length, thickness and width of the prong of QTF were 3.9 mm, 0.36 mm and 0.62 mm, respectively. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with second harmonic detection (2f) was adopted to suppress the background noise and simplify the data processing. A sinusoidal wave with high frequency f1 (f1 = f0/2) and a direct current ramp with low frequency f2 (f2 = 20 mHz) generated from a lock-in amplifier were added together and sent to the laser driver. After modulating, the laser beam passed through the coupling system and transmitted through the HC-ARF, where the gas interacted with the laser. Eventually, the exiting laser beam from the HC-ARF hit on the base of QTF to produce the strongest signal level [37] due to the light-induced thermoelastic effect. The electrical signal coming from the QTF was further sent into the lock-in amplifier for demodulation and analysis. The integration time of this lock-in amplifier was set to 200 ms. Two flow controllers were adopted to mix the target gas with pure nitrogen (N2) to generate analyte with different concentrations. A pyrocamera was used to capture the beam profiles at different position. Before entering the HC-ARF, the laser beam presents a symmetric Gaussian profile. The far-field beam profile at the output of this 75 cm HC-ARF demonstrates the LP01 fundamental mode of the transmitted laser.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of HC-ARF based LITES sensing system.

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3. Results and discussions

Firstly, the resonant characteristic of QTF was measured. The QTF was stimulated using an electrically excitation method. The experimental data were fitted by Lorentzian function to get the resonant frequency (f). The obtained results are depicted in Fig. 3. It could be found that the used QTF had a resonant frequency of 32766.20 Hz and the response bandwidth (△f) was 2.65 Hz. The quality factor (Q) was calculated to be 12364.20 according to the definition of Q = f/△f. The narrow △f and high Q imply that this QTF is beneficial to noise immune and energy conversion.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Resonant characteristic of the used QTF

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3.1 HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensing

In this research, wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second harmonic detection (2f) was adopted. Therefore, the laser wavelength modulation depth should be optimized to obtain the maximum 2f signal amplitude for this HC-ARF based LITES sensor. In the experiment, the injection current of 1530 nm DFB diode laser was adjusted from 62 mA to 102 mA to obtain the 2f signal. The output power was 20.8 mW when the laser emission wavelength reached the C2H2 absorption line at the conditions of TEC temperature of 30 °C and the injection current of 82 mA. The variation between the 2f signal amplitude and modulation depth was investigated. The result is displayed in Fig. 4. It can be seen that when the injection current for the used 1530 nm diode laser was 23.0 mA C2H2-LITES sensor had the strongest signal response. The experimentally determined current tuning coefficient for this laser was −0.0078 cm−1/mA.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. 2f signal amplitude of HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor as a function of laser injection current.

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The concentration response of this HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor was investigated. The C2H2:N2 with concentration of 1% was diluted with pure N2 to produce different concentrations of the gas mixture. As depicted in Fig. 5(a), the 2f signal of HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor was recorded when these gas mixtures were used. After linear fitted, as shown in Fig. 5(b), it can be found that the R-square for the linear fitting was 0.99, which indicated that such HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor has excellent concentration response.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. The concentration response of HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor: (a) 2f signal for different C2H2 gas mixture; (b) Linear fitting of the 2f signal amplitude for different C2H2 concentrations.

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The noise level for the HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor system was determined when the HC-ARF was filled with pure N2. The signal was recorded for 60 seconds and displayed in Fig. 6. The standard deviation (1σ) was 0.34 µV. Based on the obtained results shown in Figs. 5 and 6, a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 4.75 ppm was acquired for this HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor.

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Noise determination for the HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor.

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3.2 HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensing

In the following research, the analyte was changed from C2H2 to CO to further investigate this HC-ARF based LITES sensor performance. For CO detection, there are three available absorption bands of the fundamental band (v) located at 4.6 µm, the first overtone band (2v) located at 2.33 µm and the second overtone band (3v) located at 1.57 µm. Although the 3v band with line strength in the magnitude of 10−23 cm−1/cm−2·mol. is very weak, the excitation source of fiber-couple diode lasers are mature. Accordingly, the 1530 nm diode laser was replaced by a 1567 nm diode laser. Firstly, the optimization of laser modulation depth was performed. The relationship between the 2f signal amplitude and modulation depth for the CO-LITES sensor is shown in Fig. 7. Different from the optimum value of 23.0 mA for C2H2-LITES sensor shown in Fig. 4, due to the different linewidth of C2H2 and CO, the optimal injection current for the selected CO absorption line was 24.5 mA. The experimentally determined current tuning coefficient for this laser was −0.0053 cm−1/mA.

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. 2f signal amplitude of HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor as a function of laser injection current.

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The concentration response for this HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor was performed. Similarly, the laser injection current was tuned from 60 mA to 100 mA to obtain the 2f signal. The output power was 9.5 mW when the laser emission wavelength reached the CO absorption line at the conditions of TEC temperature of 25 °C and the injection current of 80 mA. Due to the very weak absorption strength in 1.57 µm band, the concentration of CO:N2 mixture was diluted from 50%. As depicted in Fig. 8(a), the 2f signal of HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor was measured when the CO:N2 mixture with concentration ranged from 50% to 10% was used. The measured 2f signal amplitude of CO-LITES sensor as a function of CO concentrations is depicted in Fig. 8(b). After a linear fitting procedure, the R-square was found to be 0.99, which indicates that this HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor has an outstanding linearity response to the CO concentration.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. The concentration response of HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor: (a) 2f signal for different CO gas mixture; (b) Linear fitting of the 2f signal amplitude for different CO concentrations.

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After the used HC-ARF was filled with N2, the noise level for the HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor system was measured. The obtained results are shown in Fig. 9. The 1σ noise of the sensor system was 0.22 µV. It is obvious that the noise measured in CO-LITES sensor system was less than that measured in C2H2 measurement due to its laser power was only half of that used in C2H2 detection, which reduced the thermal noise of the QTF. Based on the acquired results of signal and noise amplitudes shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively, a MDL of 1704ppm was realized for this HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor. If a laser with emission wavelength of 2.3 µm or 4.6 µm is used to target the first overtone band or fundamental vibrational band of CO, the MDL can be improved by two to four orders of magnitude to ppb-ppt level in theory.

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. Noise determination for the HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor system.

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4. Conclusions

A compact LITES sensor based on HC-ARF was reported in this paper. A custom-made silica-based HC-ARF with length of 75 cm was used as light medium and gas cell. The gas samples interacted with the light perfectly in the central region of the HC-ARF. Compared to a traditional MPC, the HC-ARF with a low optical transmission loss is beneficial for reducing the sensor size and easing the optical alignment. A QTF with a resonant frequency of 32766.20 Hz and quality factor of 12364.20 was adopted as the thermoelastic detector. C2H2 and CO were chosen as the target gas to verify such HC-ARF based LITES sensor performance. Two diode lasers with emission wavelength of 1530 nm and 1567 nm were used as the excitation source, respectively. With experimental verifications, such HC-ARF based LITES sensor exhibits excellent linearity response to the analyte concentrations. The MDL for C2H2-LITES and CO-LITES sensors were measured as 4.75 ppm and 1704ppm, respectively. The MDL for such HC-ARF based LITES sensor can be further improved by using a HC-ARF with long length or choosing an absorption line with strong strength.

Funding

National Natural Science Foundation of China (61505041, 61875047, 62022032); Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (YQ2019F006); Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; Heilongjiang Provincial Postdoctoral Science Foundation (LBH-Q18052).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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References

  • View by:

  1. J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Milde, M. Hoppe, H. Tatenguem, M. Mordmüller, J. Ogorman, U. Willer, W. Schade, and J. Sacher, “QEPAS sensor for breath analysis: a behavior of pressure,” Appl. Opt. 57(10), C120–C127 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  4. Z. Wang, I. Cotton, and S. Northcote, “Dissolved gas analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 23(6), 5–10 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. F. Ma, R. F. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Rousseau, Z. Loghmari, M. Bahriz, K. Chamassi, R. Teissier, A. N. Baranov, and A. Vicet, “Off-beam QEPAS sensor using an 11-µm DFB-QCL with an optimized acoustic resonator,” Opt. Express 27(5), 7435–7446 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Krzempek, G. Dudzik, and K. Abramski, “Photothermal spectroscopy of CO2 in an intracavity mode-locked fiber laser configuration,” Opt. Express 26(22), 28861–28871 (2018).
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  9. L. Hu, C. Zheng, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy for gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1894–1987 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. C. Y. Yao, S. F. Gao, Y. Y. Wang, P. Wang, W. Jin, and W. Ren, “Silica hollow hollow-core negative curvature fibers enable ultrasensitive mid mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 38(7), 2067–2072 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. F. Gong, G. J. Wu, X. Jiang, H. Li, T. L. Gao, M. Guo, F. X. Ma, K. Chen, L. Mei, W. Peng, and Q. X. Yu, “An all-optical high-sensitivity resonant photoacoustic sensor for remote CH4 gas detection,” Opt. Express 29(9), 13600–13608 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  14. A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1902–1904 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  15. H. D. Zheng, Y. Liu, H. Lin, B. Liu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks,” Photoacoustics 17, 100158 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6559–6571 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
    [Crossref]
  19. Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, X. G. Jin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact and sensitive mid-infrared all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for carbon monoxide detection,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9302–9312 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  20. Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, and Y. F. Ma, “Acoustic microresonator based in-plane quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a line interaction mode,” Opt. Lett. 47(6), 1295–1298 (2022).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  24. H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “HCN ppt-level detection based on a QEPAS sensor with amplified laser and a miniaturized 3D-printed photoacoustic detection channel,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9666–9675 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  27. S. D. Russo, A. Zifarelli, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. T. Wei, H. P. Wu, L. Dong, and V. Spagnolo, “Light-induced thermo-elastic effect in quartz tuning forks exploited as a photodetector in gas absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 28(13), 19074–19084 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  28. Y. Hu, S. Qiao, Y. He, Z. Lang, and Y. Ma, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal spectroscopy for trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 29(4), 5121–5127 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  29. Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  30. Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  31. C. G. Lou, X. T. Li, H. J. Chen, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Q. Yao, and X. L. Liu, “Polymer-coated quartz tuning fork for enhancing the sensitivity of laser-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 29(8), 12195–12205 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  32. S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Trace gas sensing based on single-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal dual spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 46(10), 2449–2452 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  33. Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. H. Cong, and Z. L. Wang, “Application of quartz tuning fork in photodetector based on photothermal effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31(19), 1592–1595 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  34. S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  35. L. Hu, C. Zheng, M. Zhang, K. Zheng, and F. K. Tittel, “Long-distance in-situ methane detection using near-infrared light-induced thermo-elastic spectroscopy,” Photoacoustics 21, 100230 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  36. X. N. Liu and Y. F. Ma, “Sensitive carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy with a fiber-coupled multipass cell,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 20(3), 031201 (2022).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multi-pass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  38. Y. Y. Wang and W. Ding, “Confinement loss in hollow-core negative curvature fiber: A multi-layered mode,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33122–33133 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  39. C. Y. Yao, M. Y. Hu, A. Ventura, J. G. Hayashi, F. Poletti, and W. Ren, “Tellurite hollow-core antiresonant fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(17), 5662–5668 (2021).
    [Crossref]

2022 (3)

2021 (8)

C. Y. Yao, M. Y. Hu, A. Ventura, J. G. Hayashi, F. Poletti, and W. Ren, “Tellurite hollow-core antiresonant fiber-coupled quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy,” J. Lightwave Technol. 39(17), 5662–5668 (2021).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
[Crossref]

C. G. Lou, X. T. Li, H. J. Chen, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Q. Yao, and X. L. Liu, “Polymer-coated quartz tuning fork for enhancing the sensitivity of laser-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 29(8), 12195–12205 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Trace gas sensing based on single-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal dual spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 46(10), 2449–2452 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, S. Qiao, Y. He, Z. Lang, and Y. Ma, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal spectroscopy for trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 29(4), 5121–5127 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, C. Zheng, M. Zhang, K. Zheng, and F. K. Tittel, “Long-distance in-situ methane detection using near-infrared light-induced thermo-elastic spectroscopy,” Photoacoustics 21, 100230 (2021).
[Crossref]

Z. F. Gong, G. J. Wu, X. Jiang, H. Li, T. L. Gao, M. Guo, F. X. Ma, K. Chen, L. Mei, W. Peng, and Q. X. Yu, “An all-optical high-sensitivity resonant photoacoustic sensor for remote CH4 gas detection,” Opt. Express 29(9), 13600–13608 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (5)

2019 (5)

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multi-pass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. H. Cong, and Z. L. Wang, “Application of quartz tuning fork in photodetector based on photothermal effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31(19), 1592–1595 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, X. G. Jin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact and sensitive mid-infrared all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for carbon monoxide detection,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9302–9312 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Rousseau, Z. Loghmari, M. Bahriz, K. Chamassi, R. Teissier, A. N. Baranov, and A. Vicet, “Off-beam QEPAS sensor using an 11-µm DFB-QCL with an optimized acoustic resonator,” Opt. Express 27(5), 7435–7446 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

2017 (3)

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Wang and W. Ding, “Confinement loss in hollow-core negative curvature fiber: A multi-layered mode,” Opt. Express 25(26), 33122–33133 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. P. Waclawek, H. Moser, and B. Lendl, “Compact quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor system for detection of carbon disulfide,” Opt. Express 24(6), 6559–6571 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Z. Wang, I. Cotton, and S. Northcote, “Dissolved gas analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 23(6), 5–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Abramski, K.

Akikusa, N.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bahriz, M.

Bakhirkin, Y. A.

Baldin, M. N.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Baranov, A. N.

Bobrovnikov, S. M.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Borri, S.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bradshaw, J. L.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Bruno, J. D.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Chamassi, K.

Chang, J.

Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. H. Cong, and Z. L. Wang, “Application of quartz tuning fork in photodetector based on photothermal effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31(19), 1592–1595 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. J.

Chen, K.

Chen, W. D.

K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cong, Z. H.

Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. H. Cong, and Z. L. Wang, “Application of quartz tuning fork in photodetector based on photothermal effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31(19), 1592–1595 (2019).
[Crossref]

Cotton, I.

Z. Wang, I. Cotton, and S. Northcote, “Dissolved gas analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 23(6), 5–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Curl, R. F.

Davidson, D. F.

W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Natale, P.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, W.

Dong, L.

S. D. Russo, A. Zifarelli, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. T. Wei, H. P. Wu, L. Dong, and V. Spagnolo, “Light-induced thermo-elastic effect in quartz tuning forks exploited as a photodetector in gas absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 28(13), 19074–19084 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dudzik, G.

Farooq, A.

W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

Galli, I.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, S. F.

Gao, T. L.

Gao, X. M.

K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
[Crossref]

Giglio, M.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giusfredi, G.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z. F.

Gorlov, E. V.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Gruznov, V. M.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Guo, M.

Hanson, R. K.

W. Ren, A. Farooq, D. F. Davidson, and R. K. Hanson, “CO concentration and temperature sensor for combustion gases using quantum-cascade laser absorption near 4.7 µm,” Appl. Phys. B 107(3), 849–860 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hayashi, J. G.

He, Y.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, S. Qiao, Y. He, Z. Lang, and Y. Ma, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal spectroscopy for trace gas sensing,” Opt. Express 29(4), 5121–5127 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Trace gas sensing based on single-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal dual spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 46(10), 2449–2452 (2021).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multi-pass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, X. G. Jin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact and sensitive mid-infrared all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for carbon monoxide detection,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9302–9312 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “HCN ppt-level detection based on a QEPAS sensor with amplified laser and a miniaturized 3D-printed photoacoustic detection channel,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9666–9675 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hoppe, M.

Hu, L.

L. Hu, C. Zheng, M. Zhang, K. Zheng, and F. K. Tittel, “Long-distance in-situ methane detection using near-infrared light-induced thermo-elastic spectroscopy,” Photoacoustics 21, 100230 (2021).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, C. Zheng, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy for gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1894–1987 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hu, M. Y.

Hu, Y.

Hu, Y. Q.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

Jia, S. T.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

Jin, W.

Jin, X. G.

Kosterev, A. A.

Krzempek, K.

Lang, Z.

Lang, Z. T.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, and Y. F. Ma, “Acoustic microresonator based in-plane quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a line interaction mode,” Opt. Lett. 47(6), 1295–1298 (2022).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
[Crossref]

Lascola, K. M.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Leavitt, R. P.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Lendl, B.

Lewicki, R. F.

Li, H.

Li, X. T.

Lin, H.

H. D. Zheng, Y. Liu, H. Lin, B. Liu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks,” Photoacoustics 17, 100158 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, B.

H. D. Zheng, Y. Liu, H. Lin, B. Liu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks,” Photoacoustics 17, 100158 (2020).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. L.

C. G. Lou, X. T. Li, H. J. Chen, X. Yang, Y. Zhang, J. Q. Yao, and X. L. Liu, “Polymer-coated quartz tuning fork for enhancing the sensitivity of laser-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 29(8), 12195–12205 (2021).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. N.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

X. N. Liu and Y. F. Ma, “Sensitive carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy with a fiber-coupled multipass cell,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 20(3), 031201 (2022).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

H. D. Zheng, Y. Liu, H. Lin, B. Liu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks,” Photoacoustics 17, 100158 (2020).
[Crossref]

Loghmari, Z.

Lou, C. G.

Ma, F. X.

Ma, W. G.

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Ma, Y. F.

X. N. Liu and Y. F. Ma, “Sensitive carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy with a fiber-coupled multipass cell,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 20(3), 031201 (2022).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, and Y. F. Ma, “Acoustic microresonator based in-plane quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a line interaction mode,” Opt. Lett. 47(6), 1295–1298 (2022).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Trace gas sensing based on single-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal dual spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 46(10), 2449–2452 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multi-pass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, X. G. Jin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact and sensitive mid-infrared all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for carbon monoxide detection,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9302–9312 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “HCN ppt-level detection based on a QEPAS sensor with amplified laser and a miniaturized 3D-printed photoacoustic detection channel,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9666–9675 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, R. F. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mazzotti, D.

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mei, J. X.

K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
[Crossref]

Mei, L.

Milde, T.

Mordmüller, M.

Moser, H.

Northcote, S.

Z. Wang, I. Cotton, and S. Northcote, “Dissolved gas analysis of alternative fluids for power transformers,” IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 23(6), 5–10 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ogorman, J.

Panchenko, Y. N.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Parameswaran, K. R.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Patimisco, P.

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. D. Russo, A. Zifarelli, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. T. Wei, H. P. Wu, L. Dong, and V. Spagnolo, “Light-induced thermo-elastic effect in quartz tuning forks exploited as a photodetector in gas absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 28(13), 19074–19084 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, W.

Pham, J. T.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Poletti, F.

Pryamov, M. V.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Qiao, S.

Qiao, S. D.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, and Y. F. Ma, “Acoustic microresonator based in-plane quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor with a line interaction mode,” Opt. Lett. 47(6), 1295–1298 (2022).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Trace gas sensing based on single-quartz-enhanced photoacoustic-photothermal dual spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 46(10), 2449–2452 (2021).
[Crossref]

Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

Ren, W.

Rousseau, R.

Russo, S. D.

Sacher, J.

Sakovich, G. V.

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
[Crossref]

Sampaolo, A.

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. D. Russo, A. Zifarelli, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. T. Wei, H. P. Wu, L. Dong, and V. Spagnolo, “Light-induced thermo-elastic effect in quartz tuning forks exploited as a photodetector in gas absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 28(13), 19074–19084 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scamarcio, G.

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schade, W.

Sonnenfroh, D. M.

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
[Crossref]

Spagnolo, V.

Y. F. Ma, Y. Q. Hu, S. D. Qiao, Z. T. Lang, X. N. Liu, Y. He, and V. Spagnolo, “Quartz tuning forks resonance frequency matching for laser spectroscopy sensing,” Photoacoustics 25, 100329 (2022).
[Crossref]

S. D. Qiao, Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, and V. Spagnolo, “Ppt level carbon monoxide detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy exploring custom quartz tuning forks and a mid-infrared QCL,” Opt. Express 29(16), 25100–25108 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. D. Russo, A. Zifarelli, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. T. Wei, H. P. Wu, L. Dong, and V. Spagnolo, “Light-induced thermo-elastic effect in quartz tuning forks exploited as a photodetector in gas absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 28(13), 19074–19084 (2020).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Borri, P. Patimisco, I. Galli, D. Mazzotti, G. Giusfredi, N. Akikusa, M. Yamanishi, G. Scamarcio, P. De Natale, and V. Spagnolo, “Intracavity quartz-enhanced photoacoustic sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(9), 091114 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, R.

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tatenguem, H.

Teissier, R.

Tittel, F. K.

L. Hu, C. Zheng, M. Zhang, K. Zheng, and F. K. Tittel, “Long-distance in-situ methane detection using near-infrared light-induced thermo-elastic spectroscopy,” Photoacoustics 21, 100230 (2021).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, C. Zheng, Y. Zhang, J. Zheng, Y. Wang, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact all-fiber light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy for gas sensing,” Opt. Lett. 45(7), 1894–1987 (2020).
[Crossref]

H. D. Zheng, Y. Liu, H. Lin, B. Liu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks,” Photoacoustics 17, 100158 (2020).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, Y. He, X. G. Jin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact and sensitive mid-infrared all-fiber quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor for carbon monoxide detection,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9302–9312 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy sensor with a high Q-factor quartz tuning fork and a multi-pass cell,” Opt. Lett. 44(8), 1904–1907 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. F. Ma, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “HCN ppt-level detection based on a QEPAS sensor with amplified laser and a miniaturized 3D-printed photoacoustic detection channel,” Opt. Express 26(8), 9666–9675 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Recent advances in quartz enhanced photoacoustic sensing,” Appl Phys. Rev. 5(1), 011106 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, L. G. Zhang, X. Yu, J. B. Zhang, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “Ultra-high sensitive acetylene detection using quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a fiber amplified diode laser and a 30.72 kHz quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 110(3), 031107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, R. F. Lewicki, M. Razeghi, and F. K. Tittel, “QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1008–1019 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. H. Cong, and Z. L. Wang, “Application of quartz tuning fork in photodetector based on photothermal effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31(19), 1592–1595 (2019).
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Appl Phys. Rev. (1)

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H. P. Wu, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, P. Patimisco, X. L. Liu, H. D. Zheng, X. K. Yin, W. G. Ma, L. Zhang, W. B. Yin, V. Spagnolo, S. T. Jia, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz enhanced photoacoustic H2S gas sensor based on a fiber-amplifier source and a custom tuning fork with large prong spacing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(11), 111104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, S. D. Qiao, X. Yu, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection based on light-induced thermoelastic spectroscopy and a custom quartz tuning fork,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 116(1), 011103 (2020).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Oceanic Opt. (1)

M. N. Baldin, S. M. Bobrovnikov, A. B. Vorozhtsov, E. V. Gorlov, V. M. Gruznov, V. I. Zharkov, Y. N. Panchenko, M. V. Pryamov, and G. V. Sakovich, “Effectiveness of combined laser and gas chromatographic remote detection of traces of explosives,” Atmos. Oceanic Opt. 32(2), 227–233 (2019).
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Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. (1)

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. D. Zhang, J. Chang, Z. H. Cong, and Z. L. Wang, “Application of quartz tuning fork in photodetector based on photothermal effect,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 31(19), 1592–1595 (2019).
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[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, Y. Tong, X. Yu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-tuning-fork enhanced photothermal spectroscopy for ultra-high sensitive trace gas detection,” Opt. Express 26(24), 32103–32110 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. D. Russo, A. Zifarelli, P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, T. T. Wei, H. P. Wu, L. Dong, and V. Spagnolo, “Light-induced thermo-elastic effect in quartz tuning forks exploited as a photodetector in gas absorption spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 28(13), 19074–19084 (2020).
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Opt. Lett. (5)

Photoacoustics (4)

H. D. Zheng, Y. Liu, H. Lin, B. Liu, and F. K. Tittel, “Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy employing pilot line manufactured custom tuning forks,” Photoacoustics 17, 100158 (2020).
[Crossref]

L. Hu, C. Zheng, M. Zhang, K. Zheng, and F. K. Tittel, “Long-distance in-situ methane detection using near-infrared light-induced thermo-elastic spectroscopy,” Photoacoustics 21, 100230 (2021).
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Z. T. Lang, S. D. Qiao, Y. He, and Y. F. Ma, “Quartz tuning fork-based demodulation of an acoustic signal induced by photo-thermo-elastic energy conversion,” Photoacoustics 22, 100272 (2021).
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Proc. SPIE. (1)

J. L. Bradshaw, J. D. Bruno, K. M. Lascola, R. P. Leavitt, J. T. Pham, F. J. Towner, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and K. R. Parameswaran, “Small, low-power consumption CO-sensor for post-fire cleanup aboard spacecraft,” Proc. SPIE. 8032, 80320D (2011).
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Sens. Actuators B (2)

P. Patimisco, A. Sampaolo, L. Dong, M. Giglio, G. Scamarcio, F. K. Tittel, and V. Spagnolo, “Analysis of the electro-elastic properties of custom quartz tuning forks for optoacoustic gas sensing,” Sens. Actuators B 227, 539–546 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Ma, Y. He, X. Yu, C. Chen, R. Sun, and F. K. Tittel, “HCl ppb-level detection based on QEPAS sensor using a low resonance frequency quartz tuning fork,” Sens. Actuators B 233, 388–393 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sensor Actuat. B (1)

K. Liu, J. X. Mei, W. J. Zhang, W. D. Chen, and X. M. Gao, “Multi-resonator photoacoustic spectroscopy,” Sensor Actuat. B 251, 632–636 (2017).
[Crossref]

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. HC-ARF characteristics. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of cross section of the used HC-ARF. (b) Transmission spectrum of the HC-ARF.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of HC-ARF based LITES sensing system.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Resonant characteristic of the used QTF
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. 2f signal amplitude of HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor as a function of laser injection current.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The concentration response of HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor: (a) 2f signal for different C2H2 gas mixture; (b) Linear fitting of the 2f signal amplitude for different C2H2 concentrations.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Noise determination for the HC-ARF based C2H2-LITES sensor.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. 2f signal amplitude of HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor as a function of laser injection current.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The concentration response of HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor: (a) 2f signal for different CO gas mixture; (b) Linear fitting of the 2f signal amplitude for different CO concentrations.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Noise determination for the HC-ARF based CO-LITES sensor system.
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