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Negative-index gratings formed by a 193-nm excimer laser

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Abstract

We have demonstrated fast formation [~1500 pulses at ~1 (J/cm2)/pulse] of fiber gratings with highly negative index modulations (~−3 × 10−4). We have found that the maximum negative index modulations that are achieved do not depend on the pulse intensities, although the inverse of the time taken to reach the negative index-modulation maximum varies linearly with the pulse intensities. This prompts us to use a three-energy-level system to model the photosensitivity in boron-doped germanosilicate fiber. All the necessary parameters of the model can be determined from a single growth measurement of the average index change, and the model’s prediction fits well the measured index-modulation growth.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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