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Gallium-diffused waveguides in sapphire

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Abstract

The fabrication and characterization of gallium-diffused planar waveguides in sapphire are reported. Waveguides were fabricated by diffusion of 60–200-nm-thick films of gallium oxide into c-cut sapphire at 1600 °C for times ranging from 6 to 16 h. Near-field intensity profiles of the guided modes were measured at wavelengths from 488 to 850 nm, and the surface-index elevation was estimated to be up to 0.6±0.02×10-2. Potential applications for low-threshold Ti:sapphire waveguide lasers and for optical integrated circuits with passive and active elements in sapphire are discussed.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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