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Symmetry-breaking bifurcations and ghost states in the fractional nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a PT-symmetric potential

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Abstract

We report symmetry-breaking and restoring bifurcations of solitons in a fractional Schrödinger equation with cubic or cubic–quintic (CQ) nonlinearity and a parity–time-symmetric potential, which may be realized in optical cavities. Solitons are destabilized at the bifurcation point, and, in the case of CQ nonlinearity, the stability is restored by an inverse bifurcation. Two mutually conjugate branches of ghost states (GSs), with complex propagation constants, are created by the bifurcation, solely in the case of fractional diffraction. While GSs are not true solutions, direct simulations confirm that their shapes and results of their stability analysis provide a “blueprint” for the evolution of genuine localized modes in the system.

© 2021 Optical Society of America

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