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Hybrid-mode driven dual-band absorber in long-wave infrared with a phase-gradient metasurface

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Long-wave infrared perfect absorbers have many potential applications such as thermal imaging and materials identifications. In contrast with previously reported absorbers which result from either electric or magnetic resonances, we propose a dual-band absorber through exciting the hybrid mode supported by the reflective phase-gradient metasurface. Surface wave mode and dipole-like resonance are respectively investigated to demonstrate the origins of two absorption peaks near 8.1 µm and 14.1 µm. Eigen-mode calculations agree well with the full-wave simulation results. To clarify the role of phase gradient metasurface in enhancing the absorbance, comparisons with single unit-cell metasurfaces are illustrated. The absorptions for incidence with different polarization states also confirm phase gradient design. Our findings may find applications in the long-wave infrared filters, minerals identifications and optoelectronic detectors.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Long-wave infrared (8–14µm), also known as thermal infrared, is one of the most important atmosphere windows in infrared and has enormous potential applications from thermography to astronomy. Traditional light absorption is mainly due to the intrinsic absorption of materials and it’s rare to see a near unity absorption. In recent years, the emergence of perfect absorbers in the long-wave infrared has attracted much attention in various fields such as sensors [1], absorbers [24], detectors [5,6]. The absorption in natural materials mainly depends on the interaction length with photons or optical fields, and thus high-efficiency absorption generally indicates large size. This imposes inevitable restrictions on the device integrations. Surface plasmons is a kind of highly localized electromagnetic wave propagating at a metal-electrode or metal-air interface in near infrared or visible. Due to its outstanding ability to confine light at subwavelength scale, surface plasmons has been widely used in the enhancement of photodetectors [7], super imaging [810] and photonic integrated circuits [11]. Metasurfaces, which can almost arbitrarily control the phase, amplitude, and wavefront polarization of electromagnetic waves [12,13], have been conducted as an effective tool to manipulate light in subwavelength scale [14,15]. With compact configuration and flexible structure design many devices have been proposed, such as optical flat lens [1618], polarizer [19] and controllable apparatus [20,21]. Phase gradient metasurfaces which are composed of gradual phase-change structures with constant gradient in a supercell provide a new route for the efficient free space light coupling [2225]. However, the conventional plasmonic absorbers inherently operate within a broad bandwidth and are always arranged as cavities to increase the absorption efficiency. To some extent, the momentum mismatch prevents the free space light from coupling to the surface plasmons [26,27] and limits the absorbance. Based on a sandwich structure composed of “H” metal/dielectric layer/metal layers [23], researchers proposed a method to efficiently convert the incident light to surface waves through progressive phase-mutant structures in microwave. This platform operates at one single wavelength and absorption is a nuisance. Li et al. reported a novel design on the bidirectional perfect absorber by converting the free-space wave into evanescent wave at single wavelength. This way of eliminating the transmittance and reflectance is different from the method used by traditional absorbers with a sandwich configuration or coherent perfect absorption ways [28]. However, single-band absorbers have limitations on applications like spectroscopic detection of inflammable and explosive materials that have distinct absorption or “fingerprints” at multiple wavelengths. Traditional dual-band absorbers can be roughly categorized into plasmonic [2932] and dielectric ones [33], in which electric/magnetic resonances are necessarily excited.

In this paper, different from the previously reported dual-band absorbers, our phase gradient design has narrower FWHMs. Besides, the number in the supercell can also be changed in our design as long as the phase could cover 2π. And compared with conventional dual-band absorbers configurations we propose a novel long-wave infrared dual-band absorbers based on the elaborately designed phase gradient metasurface. Incident lights are effectively coupled into the structure and two distinct absorption peaks of 0.365 and 0.986 are respectively observed at 8.095 µm and 14.121 µm. Eigen mode calculations are in well agreement with full wave simulations to confirm our phase gradient metasurface design. Besides, the role of phase gradient metasurface in the enhancement of absorption are separately and clearly demonstrated.

2. Results and discussion

As shown in Fig. 1(a), a reflection-type phase gradient metasurface is designed. It is composed of periodic supercells as indicated in Fig. 1(b). Each supercell consists of five individual nanoparticles with different lengths. The phase coverage of single unit cell through sweeping the lengths while fixing the width cannot realize 2π phase coverage. This is because the length sweeping direction is perpendicular to incident polarization. However, the proposed supercell successfully achieves the 2π phase coverage. An AlOx spacer with refractive index of 1.5 [21] and thickness of 1.9 µm is placed between the top nanoparticles array and the reflection gold film. The candidate like NaCl can also be adopted which both have refractive index around 1.5 and are transparent within 1–15 µm [34]. Period of the phase change unit cell is Lx=1.2 µm and Ly=3.0 µm. The length of all nanoparticles is fixed with Wx=0.9 µm and the width of the five gold nanoparticles are Wy=0.5 µm, 1.07 µm, 1.27 µm, 1.5 µm and 2.6 µm, respectively. The periodic of supercell is Px=6 µm and Py=3 µm. The metasurface is normally illuminated with x-polarized incidence. Finite element method is employed to conduct the simulations. The scattering boundary condition is used as the excitation plane and periodic boundary conditions are applied along x and y directions. An inserted plane between the excitation and the structure is used to recording the reflected energy R. Therefore, the absorption can be calculated as A=1-R since no energy is leaked. To verify this, the energy integration of the whole structure is conducted. This is a more straightforward way to calculate the absorption and it is in excellent agreement with the previous method. There is no additional leaking channel.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Schematic of single unit-cell phase gradient metasurface. (a) Schematic illustration of the proposed absorber. The supercell which are composed with five different phase change unit cells. The red wavy arrow represents the propagation of converted surface wave. (b) Schematic of the phase change unit cell. The thickness of gold nanoparticles is 320 nm. (c) phase coverage of the metasurface design at wavelengths λ=8.083 µm and 8.10 µm. (The horizontal coordinates X represents the length of a supercell period from left to right)

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With the metasurface design, each unit cell introduces an abrupt phase change while the overall effect of the periodic supercells leads to a constant phase gradient ξ=2π/Px, Px is the period of the supercell along x axis. The phase change of each unit cell in the super period is not evenly picked cover the whole 2π. However, it can still provide an average phase gradient and convert the incident light to surface waves. It will lower the absorption efficiency and this is why the two absorption peaks are not so high. The parallel wave vector of the reflected wave is kx.=ξ, as shown in Fig. 1(c) the overall phase change is 2π around the wavelength of 8.1 µm. With normal incidence, the reflection angle θ can be derived as θ=arcsin(kx/k0), k0=2π/λ is the vacuum wave vector. According to this equation there is a critical condition ξ ≥ k0 for zero reflection. In other word, when the period of the supercell is smaller than the operating wavelength, the normal-incident propagating wave in the air will be converted to surface wave supported by the metasurface and finally absorbed.

As shown in Fig. 2(a), the phase gradient metasurface we have designed has a sharp absorption peak near 8.1 µm, and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of absorption peak is 0.031 µm. With the inset figure, it has two absorption peaks, which locate at λ=8.083 µm with an absorption of 0.78 and λ=8.1 µm with an absorption of 0.9, respectively. From the phase change plot shown in Fig. 1(c), both wavelengths at λ=8.083 µm and λ=8.1 µm have a phase coverage of 2π over subwavelength period. The metasurface both provides an additional momentum to the incident light at two wavelengths and thus gives rise to the surface wave. Different from the phase coverage at λ=8.1 µm, at out-of-resonance wavelengths, 2π phase coverage is not achieved. Thus, the phase-gradient condition is not satisfied. The incident light would be reflected but not localized near the metasurface. From the electric field distribution in Fig. 2(b), the energy at the absorption peaks mainly localizes around the surface of the structure. The eigenfrequencies calculated are f1=37.093 THz (8.087 µm) and f2=37.006 THz (8.107 µm) which agree well with the absorption peaks positions in full wave simulations. The electric field distributions from eigenmode calculations as shown in Fig. 2(c) also confirm the simulation results in Fig. 2(b). To have a direct observation of surface wave propagation along the metasurface, in Fig. 2(d) the electric field distributions on x-y planes are also illustrated. It can be observed that the parallel wave vector kx≈1.48k0 which is in consistent with ξ. The normal incident plane wave is successfully converted into surface wave and travels along the structural interface.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Realization of single absorption with phase gradient metasurface. (a) The absorption spectrum of phase gradient metasurface. The inset shows the details of around wavelength 8.1 µm. There are two peaks at λ=8.083 µm with 0.78 absorption and λ=8.1 µm with 90% absorption. (b) Electric field distributions on x-z plane at wavelengths 8.083 µm and 8.1 µm, respectively. (c) The electric filed distributions at f1=37.093 THz (8.087 µm) and f2=37.006 THz (8.107 µm) with eigenfrequency calculation, respectively. (d) Electric filed distributions on x-y plane near the metasurface at λ=8.083 µm and the λ=8.1 µm, respectively. The metasurface is illuminated with x-polarized normal incidence. (e. f) Phase coverage (X represents the length of a supercell period) and electric field distribution map from out-of resonant peak wavelength, respectively.

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As to the absorption peak splitting at λ=8.083 µm and 8.1 µm, we attribute this to interaction of the excited surface wave and the dipole-like resonance. To separately investigate the mechanism behind the two adjacent absorption peaks, we arranged the structures with double unit cells as shown in Fig. 3(a). The subwavelength property at λ=8.095 µm does not exist since the supercell period is 12 µm in this situation. The surface wave coupling condition is not satisfied for normal incidence. Therefore, at λ=8.095 µm the absorption is attributed to the dipole-like resonance. The absorption spectrum of double unit-cell metasurface in Fig. 3(b) confirms our analysis above. There is still an ultrathin narrowband absorption peak near 8.095 µm but with only 0.36 absorbance and FWHM=0.026 µm. Moreover, there is a near unity absorption peak around λ=14.121 µm, and its FWHM is 0.058 µm.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Absorption of double unit-cell phase gradient metasurface. (a) Schematic of the double unit-cell phase gradient metasurface. Px and Py are the super period along the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. (b) The dual-band absorption of the phase gradient metasurface absorber. The absorption can be up to 98.6% at λ=14.12 µm and 36.5% at λ=8.095 µm, respectively. (c) Electric field distributions on the x-z plane at two absorption wavelengths. (The X represents the length of a supercell period) (d) The phase profiles of the overall metasurface at two absorption wavelengths.

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To demonstrate the difference of these two absorption peaks, the phase change of each unit cell for the two wavelengths are depicted in Fig. 3(c). For the wavelength at λ=8.095 µm the phase changes of unit cells cannot realize a constant gradient for the incident wave vector compensation. However, the phase change distributions at λ=14.121 µm satisfy the critical condition for the surface wave conversion. The super period of the metasurface is subwavelength and the phase changes arrangement realizes a constant gradient. Here, for the absorption peak at λ=14.121 µm we still attribute this to the hybrid mode that arises from the surface wave from the phase gradient and the dipole-like resonance from the unit cells. The electric field distributions for both absorption wavelengths in Fig. 3(d) further confirms the hybrid mode analysis.

To confirm the absorptions at two wavelengths, we calculated the eigenfrequencies of the double unit-cell metasurface in Fig. 4(a). Two frequencies are found: 37.063 THz (8.094 µm) and 21.237 THz (14.126 µm). They are very close to two absorption peaks in the simulations. In order to have a direct observation of the excited surface wave at 14.121 µm, the electric filed distributions on x-y plane are also illustrated in Fig. 4(b). The wavelength agrees well with that from the phase gradient compensation.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. Characterizations of dual-band absorptions. (a) The calculated eigenfrequencies’ electric field distributions of the double unit-cell metasurface. (b) Ex distribution of the metasurface at λ=14.121 µm. (c. d) The absorption dependence on the incident polarization states at the two absorption peaks. (e) The absorptions of each unit-cell periodic arrays at two wavelengths for comparison. (f) The absorption dependence on the angle of oblique incident.

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Moreover, in order to distinguish the absorption contributions of the phase gradient metasurface from the overall absorption of periodic arrays (in each array there is only one type of unit cell), the absorptions for each unit-cell array are calculated in Fig. 4(e) at two absorption wavelengths, respectively. It can be seen that for wavelength λ=8.10 µm the absorption efficiencies for all unit cells are below 0.01 and for wavelength λ=14.121 µm around 0.02, which are far less than those with phase gradient arrangement. The absorption dependence on the incident polarization states at wavelengths λ=8.100 µm and λ=14.121 µm are also illustrated in Fig. 4(c) and (d). As the incident polarization state changes from along x-axis to y-axis. The absorption at both wavelengths has a consistent and dramatic decrease, which further confirms the absorption enhancement role of the phase gradient metasurface in the dual-band absorber. In addition, we also have studied the absorption of the different incident angle, as show in Fig. 4(f), With the increase of incident angle, it is found that both absorption peaks shift toward the middle. Besides, the absorption peak on the left gradually increases and the other one decreases. It can attribute this to the coupling condition changing and resonances are satisfied at other wavelengths. For one hand, the dual band absorbers based on the phase gradient metasurface provides another efficient method to realize dual-band absorption in long-wave infrared. The phase gradient metasurface shows an effective role in enhancing the absorptions in comparison with those periodic arrays which consists of only one type of unit cells. On the other hand, most of reported broadband [35] or narrow-band absorbers [36] are based on plasmonic resonances. Due to the inherent broad dispersion of plasmons, the full width at half maximum is usually larger than 100 nm in long wavelength infrared region. However, the phase gradient metasurface we proposed realize an ultra-narrow bandwidth with FWHMs less than 60 nm.

3. Conclusion

In this paper, we propose a novel phase gradient metasurface design to achieve dual band absorption through exciting hybrid mode. Different from previously reported the metasurface absorber, surface wave together with the excitation of the dipole-like resonance is utilized to realize dual-band absorption at the long-wave infrared. Compared with the absorption properties of the unit-cell array, we confirm that the phase gradient metasurface plays a crucial role in enhancing the absorption efficiencies. Though the proposed device works in the long-wave infrared, this kind of absorber could also be extended to other wavelength bands such as microwave and terahertz through changing the structural parameters.

Funding

Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project (2019SHZDZX01); Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (18JC1420401, 20JC1416000); Shanghai Rising-Star Program (20QA1410400); Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB43010200); Key Research Project of Frontier Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (QYZDJSSWJSC007); Youth Innovation Promotion Association of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2017285); National Natural Science Foundation of China (61521005, 61705249, 61874126, 61875218, 61991440, 91850208); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFA0205800, 2018YFA0306200).

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the National Key Research and Development Program of China under Grant 2017YFA0205800 and Grant 2018YFA0306200; in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61875218, Grant 61705249, Grant 61874126, Grant 61521005, Grant 61991440 and Grant 91850208; in part by the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant 2017285; in part by the Key Research Project of Frontier Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant QYZDJSSWJSC007; in part by the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant XDB43010200; in part by the Shanghai Rising-Star Program under Grant 20QA1410400; in part by the Shanghai Science and Technology Committee under Grant 18JC1420401 and Grant 20JC1416000, and in part by the Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Major Project under Grant 2019SHZDZX01. This work was partially carried out at the Center for Micro and Nanoscale Research and Fabrication in University of Science and Technology of China.

Disclosures

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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References

  • View by:

  1. S-. M. Hong, “High performance long-wave infrared sensor with large zoom optics and high-definition television format,” Opt. Eng 45(12), 123201 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Yoon, S. So, M. Kim, J. Mun, R. Ma, and J. Rho, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorber for infrared frequencies,” Nano Convergence 4(1), 36 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. P. Gaur, K. Rangra, and D. Kumar, “MEMS AlN pyroelectric infrared sensor with medium to long wave IR absorber,” Sens. Actuators, A 300, 111660 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  5. E. Mohammadi, M. Ghaffari, and N. Behdad, “Wide dynamic range, angle-sensing, long-wave infrared detector using nano-antenna arrays,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 2488 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Chen, Y. Huang, K. Wu, T. G. Bifano, and X. Zhang, “Polarization insensitive, metamaterial absorber-enhanced long-wave infrared detector,” Opt. Express 28(20), 28843–28857 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  7. W. Li and J. Valentine, “Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3510–3514 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Shi, Z. Zhang, M. He, X. Li, J. Yang, and J. Du, “Analysis of surface-plasmon-polaritons-assisted interference imaging by using silver film with rough surface,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10685–10693 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Xiao, Q. He, X. Huang, and L. Zhou, “Super imaging with a plasmonic metamaterial: role of aperture shape,” Metamaterials 5(2-3), 112–118 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. Michael B. Johnston, “Superfocusing of terahertz waves,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 14–15 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Trappen, M. Blaicher, P. I. Dietrich, C. Dankwart, and C. Koos, “3D-printed optical probes for wafer-level testing of photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 28(25), 37996–38007 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  13. Z. Li, J. Hao, Li. Huang, H. Xu, and Y. Sun, “Manipulating the wavefront of light by plasmonic metasurfaces operating in high order modes,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8788–8796 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z. Li, L. Huang, K. Lu, Y. Sun, and L. Min, “Continuous metasurface for high-performance anomalous reflection,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  15. F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26212–26221 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  17. N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Wang, J. Lai, T. Wu, C. Chen, and J. Sun, “Wide-band achromatic flat focusing lens based on all-dielectric subwavelength metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(6), 7121–7130 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J. C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. C. Qu, S. Xiao, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “A theoretical study on the conversion efficiencies of gradient meta-surfaces,” EPL 101(5), 54002 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  25. Z. Xu, T. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. Yan, D. Li, L. Y. M. Tobing, Q. Fei, Y. Wang, X. Shen, and T. Yu, “Groove-structured metasurfaces for modulation of surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(5), 052001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Ling, L. Huang, W. Hong, T. Liu, Y. Sun, and Y. Gang, “Asymmetric optical transmission based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in gradient metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13648–13658 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. Wang, S. Qu, H. Ma, Z. Xu, A. Zhang, H. Zhou, and Y. Li, “High-efficiency spoof plasmon polariton coupler mediated by gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 201104 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Li, P. Yu, C. Tang, H. Cheng, and J. Tian, “Bidirectional perfect absorber using free substrate plasmonic metasurfaces,” Advanced Optical Materials 5(12), 1700152 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  29. F. Ye, H. Ye, and X. Wang, “Design and experimental verification of a perfect dual-band optical metamaterial absorber,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 31(08), 1750047 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  30. N.-H. Nghia, P. Jaromir, and C. Michael, “Dual broadband infrared absorptance enhanced by magnetic polaritons using graphene-covered compound metal gratings,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30182–30190 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  31. P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075005 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  32. W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  33. Y. Cai, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, X. Huang, G. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Tunable dual-band terahertz absorber with all-dielectric configuration based on graphene,” Opt. Express 28(21), 31524–31534 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  34. P. Yang, L. Liu, X. Zhang, and J. Mo, “Research progress of long-wavelength infrared optical materials,” J. Inorg. Mater. 23(4), 641–646 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
    [Crossref]
  36. I. Kim, S. So, A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Thermally robust ring-shaped chromium perfect absorber of visible light,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1827–1833 (2018).
    [Crossref]

2021 (1)

D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
[Crossref]

2020 (4)

2019 (3)

N.-H. Nghia, P. Jaromir, and C. Michael, “Dual broadband infrared absorptance enhanced by magnetic polaritons using graphene-covered compound metal gratings,” Opt. Express 27(21), 30182–30190 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. P. Gaur, K. Rangra, and D. Kumar, “MEMS AlN pyroelectric infrared sensor with medium to long wave IR absorber,” Sens. Actuators, A 300, 111660 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
[Crossref]

I. Kim, S. So, A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Thermally robust ring-shaped chromium perfect absorber of visible light,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1827–1833 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (6)

G. Yoon, S. So, M. Kim, J. Mun, R. Ma, and J. Rho, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorber for infrared frequencies,” Nano Convergence 4(1), 36 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Ling, L. Huang, W. Hong, T. Liu, Y. Sun, and Y. Gang, “Asymmetric optical transmission based on unidirectional excitation of surface plasmon polaritons in gradient metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(12), 13648–13658 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Li, P. Yu, C. Tang, H. Cheng, and J. Tian, “Bidirectional perfect absorber using free substrate plasmonic metasurfaces,” Advanced Optical Materials 5(12), 1700152 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Ye, H. Ye, and X. Wang, “Design and experimental verification of a perfect dual-band optical metamaterial absorber,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 31(08), 1750047 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, J. Lai, T. Wu, C. Chen, and J. Sun, “Wide-band achromatic flat focusing lens based on all-dielectric subwavelength metasurface,” Opt. Express 25(6), 7121–7130 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

Z. Li, J. Hao, Li. Huang, H. Xu, and Y. Sun, “Manipulating the wavefront of light by plasmonic metasurfaces operating in high order modes,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8788–8796 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

Z. Li, L. Huang, K. Lu, Y. Sun, and L. Min, “Continuous metasurface for high-performance anomalous reflection,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112001 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. R. West, J. L. Stewart, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, V. V. Shkunov, F. Strohkendl, Y. A. Zakharenkov, R. K. Dodds, and R. Byren, “All-dielectric subwavelength metasurface focusing lens,” Opt. Express 22(21), 26212–26221 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Li and J. Valentine, “Metamaterial perfect absorber based hot electron photodetection,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3510–3514 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J. C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu, T. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. Yan, D. Li, L. Y. M. Tobing, Q. Fei, Y. Wang, X. Shen, and T. Yu, “Groove-structured metasurfaces for modulation of surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(5), 052001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C. Qu, S. Xiao, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “A theoretical study on the conversion efficiencies of gradient meta-surfaces,” EPL 101(5), 54002 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, S. Qu, H. Ma, Z. Xu, A. Zhang, H. Zhou, and Y. Li, “High-efficiency spoof plasmon polariton coupler mediated by gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 201104 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

S. Xiao, Q. He, X. Huang, and L. Zhou, “Super imaging with a plasmonic metamaterial: role of aperture shape,” Metamaterials 5(2-3), 112–118 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075005 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

P. Yang, L. Liu, X. Zhang, and J. Mo, “Research progress of long-wavelength infrared optical materials,” J. Inorg. Mater. 23(4), 641–646 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Michael B. Johnston, “Superfocusing of terahertz waves,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 14–15 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S-. M. Hong, “High performance long-wave infrared sensor with large zoom optics and high-definition television format,” Opt. Eng 45(12), 123201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Behdad, N.

E. Mohammadi, M. Ghaffari, and N. Behdad, “Wide dynamic range, angle-sensing, long-wave infrared detector using nano-antenna arrays,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 2488 (2020).
[Crossref]

Bernardin, T.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J. C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bifano, T. G.

Blaicher, M.

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J. C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
[Crossref]

Byren, R.

Cai, G.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, T.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cai, Y.

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chae, J.

D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Cheng, H.

J. Li, P. Yu, C. Tang, H. Cheng, and J. Tian, “Bidirectional perfect absorber using free substrate plasmonic metasurfaces,” Advanced Optical Materials 5(12), 1700152 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.

D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
[Crossref]

Dankwart, C.

Dietrich, P. I.

Ding, P.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dodds, R. K.

Du, J.

Duan, J. W.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fan, C.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fei, Q.

Z. Xu, T. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. Yan, D. Li, L. Y. M. Tobing, Q. Fei, Y. Wang, X. Shen, and T. Yu, “Groove-structured metasurfaces for modulation of surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(5), 052001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gang, Y.

Gaur, S. P.

S. P. Gaur, K. Rangra, and D. Kumar, “MEMS AlN pyroelectric infrared sensor with medium to long wave IR absorber,” Sens. Actuators, A 300, 111660 (2019).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ghaffari, M.

E. Mohammadi, M. Ghaffari, and N. Behdad, “Wide dynamic range, angle-sensing, long-wave infrared detector using nano-antenna arrays,” Sci. Rep. 10(1), 2488 (2020).
[Crossref]

Go, M.

D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
[Crossref]

Guan, F. X.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, H. J.

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

Guo, Y.

Han, S.

D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, J. Hao, Li. Huang, H. Xu, and Y. Sun, “Manipulating the wavefront of light by plasmonic metasurfaces operating in high order modes,” Opt. Express 24(8), 8788–8796 (2016).
[Crossref]

He, M.

He, Q.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Xiao, S. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “A theoretical study on the conversion efficiencies of gradient meta-surfaces,” EPL 101(5), 54002 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, Q. He, S. Xiao, Q. Xu, X. Li, and L. Zhou, “Gradient-index meta-surfaces as a bridge linking propagating waves and surface waves,” Nat. Mater. 11(5), 426–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, Q. He, X. Huang, and L. Zhou, “Super imaging with a plasmonic metamaterial: role of aperture shape,” Metamaterials 5(2-3), 112–118 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, S-. M.

S-. M. Hong, “High performance long-wave infrared sensor with large zoom optics and high-definition television format,” Opt. Eng 45(12), 123201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hong, W.

Hu, W.

P. Ding, E. Liang, G. Cai, W. Hu, C. Fan, and Q. Xue, “Dual-band perfect absorption and field enhancement by interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons in optical metamaterials,” J. Opt. 13(7), 075005 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Huang, Li.

Huang, X.

Y. Cai, Y. Guo, Y. Zhou, X. Huang, G. Yang, and J. Zhu, “Tunable dual-band terahertz absorber with all-dielectric configuration based on graphene,” Opt. Express 28(21), 31524–31534 (2020).
[Crossref]

S. Xiao, Q. He, X. Huang, and L. Zhou, “Super imaging with a plasmonic metamaterial: role of aperture shape,” Metamaterials 5(2-3), 112–118 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Jang, J.

D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
[Crossref]

Jaromir, P.

Jeong, Y.

D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Johnston, Michael B.

Michael B. Johnston, “Superfocusing of terahertz waves,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 14–15 (2007).
[Crossref]

Juan, T. K.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jung, G.

D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kats, M. A.

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultra-thin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, I.

I. Kim, S. So, A. S. Rana, M. Q. Mehmood, and J. Rho, “Thermally robust ring-shaped chromium perfect absorber of visible light,” Nanophotonics 7(11), 1827–1833 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, J.

D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

D. Lee, S. Han, Y. Jeong, D. M. Nguyen, G. Yoon, J. Mun, J. Chae, J. H. Lee, J. G. Ok, G. Jung, H. J. Park, K. Kim, and J. Rho, “Polarization-sensitive tunable absorber in visible and near-infrared regimes[J],” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12393 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

D. Lee, M. Go, M. Kim, J. Jang, C. Choi, J. Kim, and J. Rho, “Multiple-patterning colloidal lithography-implemented scalable manufacturing of heat-tolerant titanium nitride broadband absorbers in the visible to near-infrared,” Microsyst. Nanoeng. 7(1), 14 (2021).
[Crossref]

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J. Wang, S. Qu, H. Ma, Z. Xu, A. Zhang, H. Zhou, and Y. Li, “High-efficiency spoof plasmon polariton coupler mediated by gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 201104 (2012).
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Z. Xu, T. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. Yan, D. Li, L. Y. M. Tobing, Q. Fei, Y. Wang, X. Shen, and T. Yu, “Groove-structured metasurfaces for modulation of surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(5), 052001 (2014).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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T. Cai, G. M. Wang, S. W. Tang, H. X. Xu, J. W. Duan, H. J. Guo, F. X. Guan, S. L. Sun, Q. He, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency and full-space manipulation of electromagnetic wave-fronts with metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 8(3), 034033 (2017).
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A. Pors, M. G. Nielsen, T. Bernardin, J. C. Weeber, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient unidirectional polarization-controlled excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Light: Sci. Appl. 3(8), e197 (2014).
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F. Ye, H. Ye, and X. Wang, “Design and experimental verification of a perfect dual-band optical metamaterial absorber,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 31(08), 1750047 (2017).
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Z. Xu, T. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. Yan, D. Li, L. Y. M. Tobing, Q. Fei, Y. Wang, X. Shen, and T. Yu, “Groove-structured metasurfaces for modulation of surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(5), 052001 (2014).
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Zhang, A.

J. Wang, S. Qu, H. Ma, Z. Xu, A. Zhang, H. Zhou, and Y. Li, “High-efficiency spoof plasmon polariton coupler mediated by gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 201104 (2012).
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Zhou, L.

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

W. Sun, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “High-efficiency surface plasmon meta-couplers: concept and microwave-regime realizations,” Light: Sci. Appl. 5(1), e16003 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Zhu, J.

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

S. Sun, Q. He, J. Hao, S. Xiao, and L. Zhou, “Electromagnetic metasurfaces: physics and applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 11(2), 380–479 (2019).
[Crossref]

Advanced Optical Materials (1)

J. Li, P. Yu, C. Tang, H. Cheng, and J. Tian, “Bidirectional perfect absorber using free substrate plasmonic metasurfaces,” Advanced Optical Materials 5(12), 1700152 (2017).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

Z. Xu, T. Li, D. H. Zhang, C. Yan, D. Li, L. Y. M. Tobing, Q. Fei, Y. Wang, X. Shen, and T. Yu, “Groove-structured metasurfaces for modulation of surface plasmon propagation,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(5), 052001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, L. Huang, K. Lu, Y. Sun, and L. Min, “Continuous metasurface for high-performance anomalous reflection,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(11), 112001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Wang, S. Qu, H. Ma, Z. Xu, A. Zhang, H. Zhou, and Y. Li, “High-efficiency spoof plasmon polariton coupler mediated by gradient metasurfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(20), 201104 (2012).
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EPL (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of single unit-cell phase gradient metasurface. (a) Schematic illustration of the proposed absorber. The supercell which are composed with five different phase change unit cells. The red wavy arrow represents the propagation of converted surface wave. (b) Schematic of the phase change unit cell. The thickness of gold nanoparticles is 320 nm. (c) phase coverage of the metasurface design at wavelengths λ=8.083 µm and 8.10 µm. (The horizontal coordinates X represents the length of a supercell period from left to right)
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Realization of single absorption with phase gradient metasurface. (a) The absorption spectrum of phase gradient metasurface. The inset shows the details of around wavelength 8.1 µm. There are two peaks at λ=8.083 µm with 0.78 absorption and λ=8.1 µm with 90% absorption. (b) Electric field distributions on x-z plane at wavelengths 8.083 µm and 8.1 µm, respectively. (c) The electric filed distributions at f1=37.093 THz (8.087 µm) and f2=37.006 THz (8.107 µm) with eigenfrequency calculation, respectively. (d) Electric filed distributions on x-y plane near the metasurface at λ=8.083 µm and the λ=8.1 µm, respectively. The metasurface is illuminated with x-polarized normal incidence. (e. f) Phase coverage (X represents the length of a supercell period) and electric field distribution map from out-of resonant peak wavelength, respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Absorption of double unit-cell phase gradient metasurface. (a) Schematic of the double unit-cell phase gradient metasurface. Px and Py are the super period along the x-axis and y-axis, respectively. (b) The dual-band absorption of the phase gradient metasurface absorber. The absorption can be up to 98.6% at λ=14.12 µm and 36.5% at λ=8.095 µm, respectively. (c) Electric field distributions on the x-z plane at two absorption wavelengths. (The X represents the length of a supercell period) (d) The phase profiles of the overall metasurface at two absorption wavelengths.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Characterizations of dual-band absorptions. (a) The calculated eigenfrequencies’ electric field distributions of the double unit-cell metasurface. (b) Ex distribution of the metasurface at λ=14.121 µm. (c. d) The absorption dependence on the incident polarization states at the two absorption peaks. (e) The absorptions of each unit-cell periodic arrays at two wavelengths for comparison. (f) The absorption dependence on the angle of oblique incident.

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