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Multicomponent garnet phosphor (LuYGd)(Al4Ga)O12:Ce3+,V3+: trap modulation via reductive gas annealing and an optical information storage property

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Abstract

Annealing treatments are an effective strategy to modulate trap depth and trap concentration in electronic materials. Herein, we have found that annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere is a good way to tailor the trap depth and trap concentration of the (LuYGd)(Al4Ga)O12:Ce3+,V3+ multicomponent phosphor. The characterization results show that the annealing atmosphere has no effect on the crystal structure and the photoluminescence peak position, but strengthens the trap depth and trap concentration. Especially, after annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere, the thermoluminescence (TL) integrated area of the phosphor is 7.46 times that of the unannealed phosphor, and the TL peaks obviously shift to a higher temperature region, which could be promoted to enhance optical information storage properties. Moreover, the peak position of photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) is consistent with that of photoluminescence (PL), indicating that (LuYGd)(Al4Ga)O12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor annealed in a weak reducing atmosphere possesses optical information read-in and read-out characteristics, and suggests that the multicomponent phosphor is a good candidate for optical information storage materials.

© 2021 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Compared with the current application of organic optical storage materials (such as cyanine dyes and phthalo cyanine dyes) the more stable inorganic persistent luminescence materials, also called electron trapping materials, have attracted more and more attention in the fields of optical information storage which are also called photo-stimulated luminescence materials (PSLs) [112], besides as vivo bio-imaging [1319] and alternating current-light emitting diodes materials [20,21]. The reason why PSLs were considered as candidates of optical storage materials is their capability of realizing “write-in” and “read-out” of optical information, while, the “write-in” and “read-out” ability is closely related to emitting centers and trap centers in PSLs materials [2226]. In principle, the emitting centers come from luminescent ions, which can be intrinsic or doped ions, and are responsible for the optical information “write-in” under excitation of UV or visible light, nevertheless, the traps originated from “defects” or “extra energy band level” act as a key role in “read-out” of optical information upon long-wave photo-stimulation by releasing the captured charge carriers in the traps. Therefore, the capability that optical information can be cyclically read-out strongly depends on the trap concentration and trap depth in PSLs. However, ideal PSLs with abundant and controlled deep traps are scarce, because the trap tailoring in PSLs is still a challenging and difficult task. Up to now, a doping or co-doping strategy is frequently applied to modulate trap properties in PSLs, as reported in some researches on single-doped Ca3Ga4O9:Bi3+ [5], double-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+, Cr3+ [27] and BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ [22], and even four-doped Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Tm3+,Ho3+,Dy3+ [6]. As an example of Ba2SiO4 matrix, compared to single doping Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ phosphors, after co-doping, triple-doping, and four-doping, these phosphors presented that more traps were created and the trap depth was deepened. Especially, the four-doping Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Tm3+,Ho3+,Dy3+ phosphors showed rich isolated traps and the related traps depth is 0.723 eV, 0.841 eV, and 1.02 eV, respectively [6]. On the basis of doping strategy, further modulating trap properties by annealing treatment in different atmospheres is rarely reported.

In our research work, a kind of Ce3+ and V3+ co-doped (LuYGd)(Al4Ga)O12 (LYGAGGCV-0) yttrium aluminum gallate garnet was synthesized in air, while the original matrix is the well-known A3B5O12 (YAG Garnet) with elements substitutions at A and B sites. Then some LYGAGGCV-0 phosphors were further annealed in both air atmosphere and a weak reducing atmosphere, obtained LYGAGGCV-1 and LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors, respectively. Compared to LYGAGGCV-1 phosphors, an oxygen deficient environment easily formed profuse oxygen vacancies in LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors, which could largely promote to add trap concentration and deepen trap depth, to some extent. This obvious superiority has been proved by thermoluminescence spectra (TL) measurement results, and the total TL intensity of LYGAGGCV-2 is about 7.46 times that of LYGAGGCV-0. Moreover, the TL peaks of LYGAGGCV-2 shift to higher temperature range.

2. Experiments

It has been reported that the optimal concentration of co-dopants Ce3+ and V3+ in yttrium aluminum gallate garnet phosphors was 0.015 mol and 0.002 mol, respectively [24]. In our experiments, referring to this, a starting chemical composition of phosphor (LuY0.985Gd)(Al3.998Ga)O12:0.015Ce3+,0.002V3+ (simply named as LYGAGGCV-0) was synthesized at 1550 °C for 6 h by solid-state reaction method in air, with Lu2O3 (99.99%), Y2O3 (99.99%), Gd2O3 (99.95%), Al2O3 (99.99%), Ga2O3 (99.999%), CeO2 (99.99%), and V2O5 (99.6%) as raw materials. Then parts of LYGAGGCV-0 phosphors were annealed at 1000 °C for 6 h in air atmosphere, which is abbreviated as LYGAGGCV-1. While LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors were obtained after some of LYGAGGCV-0 phosphors were annealed at 1000 °C for 6 h in a weak reducing atmosphere (Ar:H2=95:5, simply RA) with a gas flow rate of 1 L/min, to compare atmosphere influence on properties.

Furthermore, to demonstrate the optical information storage (OIS) capability, the phosphor films are required and fabricated. The LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors with better OIS properties were selected and mixed with silica gel precursors and cyclohexane in a weight ratio of 1:2:3, and then stirred for 1 h and sonicated for 1 h to form homogeneous viscous slurries. The phosphor slurries were casted on an aluminum plate to fabricate a flat precursor film. After heating at 45 °C for 0.5 h to remove air bubbles and heating at 60 °C for 2 h to cure, a flexible phosphor film was fabricated and its size and thickness is about 2.7 cm × 3.9 cm and 1.1 mm respectively.

Phase and crystal structure of phosphors were characterized by a Bruker D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer (XRD) with Cu Kα radiation at an interval of 0.02° in a 2θ range from 10° to 80°. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectra, and PSL spectra were recorded by a fluorescence spectrophotometer (Hitachi Model F-4600, Xe lamp as light source, 150 W). Before PSL measurement, the phosphors were irradiated for 100 s by a Hg lamp of 254 nm wavelength (6 W), then removing the excitation source for 5 min, and finally the phosphors were excited again by a light of 808 nm using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. A heating stage (TAP-02) was used to monitor the temperature-dependent PL spectra. Fluorescence quantum yield (QY) was recorded by an Edinburgh spectrometer (FLS1000) equipped with an integrating-sphere at room temperature (RT). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at 77 K was measured by Bruker A300 X-band (9.85 GHz). The time-dependent and temperature-dependent TL curves were measured from RT to 773 K (500 °C) at a heating rate of 0.5 K/s, using a SL08 TL spectrometer (Radiation Science and Technology Co. Ltd, Guangzhou, China). And detection was with a photomultiplier tube (PMT; CR105, Beijing Hamamatsu, China), whose spectral response range was 300-650 nm. The PMT applied voltage was fixed at 500 V. Before all TL curves measured except temperature-dependent TL, phosphors were first irradiated by the light source built in the instrument. And the temperature-dependent TL curves were recorded after phosphors excited by a 365 nm Hg lamp (6 W) for 100 s, with a constant temperature electric heating stage (DB-1A, Changzhou Zhengrong Instrument Co., Ltd.). For the information optical storage demonstration, a laser source of 405 nm was applied as excitation.

3. Results and discussions

3.1 Crystal structure and luminescence properties

Figure 1 shows the XRD patterns of LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors of (LuYGd)(Al4Ga)O12:Ce,V experienced calcination at 1550 °C in air, annealing at 1000 °C in air, and annealing at 1000 °C in reductive atmosphere (RA), respectively. Main diffraction peaks of these three samples all well match the relative diffraction peaks of the standard pattern of YAGG phase (Y3Al4GaO12, JCPDS No. 89-6658) host. After bigger Gd3+ ions (1.042 Å) partly occupied Y3+ (1.019 Å) sites and smaller Lu3+ ions (0.976 Å) partly occupied Y3+ (1.019 Å) sites [28], the ionic radius difference between Lu3+ and Y3+ is about twice that of between Gd3+ and Y3+, resulting in the reducing of interplanar distance and shrinking of cell unit. Additionally, the XRD results show that annealing atmospheres have no obvious effect on main crystal phase composition of resultant phosphors, except for a little unreacted Lu2O3 and Al2O3 of raw materials as impurity without negative influence on luminescence of phosphors.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. (a) XRD patterns of LYGAGGCV-0 without annealing, LYGAGGCV-1 annealed in air, LYGAGGCV-2 annealed in RA, and the standard pattern of Y3Al4GaO12 (JCPDS No. 89-6658).

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Figure 2 depicts the PLE and PL spectra of LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1 and LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors. Monitored at 500 nm, two broad PLE bands are in the range from 325 nm to 375 nm and from 390 nm to 480 nm, assigned to 4f→5d2 and 4f→5d1 transition of typical trivalent Ce3+, respectively [24,27,29]. Compared with Y3Al4GaO12:Ce3+,V3+ reported by Li et al. [24], in our measurements, the PLE band from 4f→5d2 transition shows a red-shift, whereas the band from 4f→5d1 exhibits a blue-shift, owing to the substitution of smaller Lu3+ and bigger Gd3+ for Y3+. This result indicates that the 5d2 excited state of Ce3+ moves towards a lower energy level, while the 5d1 excited state moves towards a higher energy level, that is, the level splitting between the 5d1 and 5d2 excited states of Ce3+ increases. This is mainly because the ion radius difference between Lu3+ ion and Y3+ ion is about twice than that between Gd3+ ion and Y3+ ion, leading to the shrinkage of unite cell and dominant crystal field enhancement and thus intensifying the energy level splitting. Furthermore, the annealing atmosphere has no effect on the emission peak position and there still shows a typical Ce3+ dipole peak in a broad 460-650 nm range excited by a light of 450 nm. These three phosphors give only one strong emission peak at about 500 nm, assigned to 5d1→4f transition of trivalent Ce3+ [24,27,29], emitting cyan light (Fig. 2(a)). Because the annealing treatment in air or in RA can increase the concentration of traps with deeper trap depth, especially for the sample LYGAGGCV-2 annealed in RA. When the excitation light irradiates phosphors, the excited electrons in the ground states jump to the excited states, a part of photoluminescent carriers are captured by the traps, and the number of photoluminescent carriers decreases, thus reducing the emission intensity. Moreover, the luminescent centers of the phosphors are trivalent Ce3+ ions, therefore, RA-annealing is very beneficial for much more trivalent Ce3+ formation via Ce4+→Ce3+. As a result, the PL intensity of LYGAGGCV-2 is higher than that of LYGAGGCV-1. It must be emphasized that no emission of V3+ is observed in all phosphors, suggesting that the V ion dopant just acted as trap center [24]. Otherwise, after LYGAGGCV-0 phosphor was annealed in air atmosphere and in a weak reducing atmosphere, its fluorescence quantum yield (QY) is increased from 68.2% to 72.7% for LYGAGGCV-1 and 74.3% for LYGAGGCV-2, respectively. That is to say, the QY of LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor is the highest of these three phosphors, with more trivalent Ce3+ luminescent centers induced by reductive gas annealing. As for the analysis results of Ce and V ions valence states, please refer to the Supporting Information with Fig. S1, Table S1, and Fig. S2.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. (a) PL spectra excited at 450 nm and (b) normalized PLE spectra monitored at 500 nm, for LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2.

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3.2 TL property and defects source

3.2.1 Effect of the atmospheric treatment on TL property

TL measurement is one of the most effective ways to detect trap concentration and trap distribution [30]. TL curves were collected at a heating rate of 0.5 K/s after pre-excitation under 365 nm for 100 s and then delayed 5 min. Figure 3(a) describes TL curves of the three phosphors with different atmospheres treatment. The insert is the relative value of integrated TL spectra area ratio (temperature range from 300 K to 750 K) for the three phosphors. The intensity of T1 and T2 peaks of LYGAGGCV-1, annealed in air, decreases slightly, and the integrated area of TL is only 0.82 times that of LYGAGGCV-0. Interestingly, after annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere, the TL peaks (T1 and T2) of LYGAGGCV-2 are significantly enhanced and its integrated area of TL is 7.46 times that of LYGAGGCV-0, as indicated in the inset of Fig. 3(a). Additionally, the peaks of T1 and T2 move to a higher temperature region, indicating that annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere not only can induce plenty of deeper traps but can also stably store more carriers, which are very beneficial to improve the performance of optical information storage. The relative trap depth calculated by Urbach empirical formula [31] is presented in Table 1 as follows. The deepest trap depth of LYGAGGCV-2 is a high value of 1.264 eV, while the trap depth of LYGAGGCV-0 and LYGAGGCV-1 is only 1.186 eV and 1.196 eV, respectively. In addition, Fig. 3(b) presents the three-dimensional (3D) TL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2, in which the thermal stimulated luminescence (TSL) spectrum peak position is consistent with PL peak position located at about 500 nm, meaning that the stored information can be also read-out by thermal stimulation. As for the origin of a large number of traps formed in the LYGAGGCV-2, it is speculated that the enhanced deep or shallow traps presented in TL spectra should be associated with defects related to oxygen vacancies and the annealing in different atmospheres can also effectively tailoring trap properties, because there have been some previous research results on defects of oxygen vacancy formation via reducing atmosphere heat-treatment [32,33].

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) TL spectra and relative TL integrated area ratios (inset) of LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2. (b) 3D TL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2. All TL spectra are measured after 365 nm light covering for 100 s and delayed 5 min, with a heating rate of 0.5 K/s.

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Tables Icon

Table 1. TL peaks with calculated trap depth of LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors

3.2.2 Effects of time and temperature on TL and trap properties

Time- and temperature-dependent TL spectra were used to further research the trap properties related to optical information storage performance of phosphors. Firstly, the time-dependent TL spectra recorded at various excitation duration (5-600 s) with the excitation source of instrument are applied to study the trap concentration and trap distribution of LYGAGGCV-2, as shown in Fig. 4(a). Figure 4(b) shows the intensity change of peak T1 and T2 with excitation duration increasing. When excitation duration is less than 100 s, the intensity of T1 and T2 increases rapidly as the excitation time is extended. And when the excitation duration exceeds 100 s, the increasing trend of T1 (shallow trap, marked in red color) integrated intensity is almost ceased, indicating that carriers captured by shallow traps gradually tends to be saturated. While the integrated intensity of T2 (deep trap, marked in blue color) still keeps on increasing, suggesting that the carriers captured by deep traps continuously increasing and the deep traps can stably capture more carriers than shallow traps. Therefore, it can be speculated that LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors can continuously absorb the energy from the incident light and capture much more carriers by deep traps, which is an indispensable property to store information stably and read-out information by photostimulation.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) TL spectra and (b) the integrated intensity of T1 and T2, recorded at various excitation durations (5-600 s), for LYGAGGCV-2 sample.

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Secondly, the time-dependent TL spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 were also recorded at various delay durations (5 min-1440 h) after excitation with 365 nm UV light, and the relative TL integrated areas (in a temperature range from 300 K to 750 K) at various delay durations are plotted, as shown in Fig. 5. As the delay duration increases, the intensity of T1 drops rapidly while T2 intensity decreases slowly, and the position of two peaks moves towards higher temperature region (Fig. 5(a)). With the delay durations prolonged, the traps in LYGAGGCV-2 are inevitably interfered by thermal energy from the ambient temperature. As a result, it is easy for carriers to escape from shallow traps, while hard to escape from deep traps unless the shallow traps are emptied. This further confirms the existence of a continuous distribution of traps in LYGAGGCV-2, presenting a same phenomenon as seen in the work of Jin et al. [23]. In his work, with the increase of decay time, the TL intensity of Ba2SiO4:0.005Eu2+,0.01Ho3+ phosphors decreased significantly but the position of TL band obviously shifted to higher temperature region. Surprisingly, after delay duration prolonged to 1440 h (60 days), the total TL integrated area of LYGAGGCV-2 can still retain 47% of the value recorded after the phosphor delayed 5 min, as displayed in Fig. 5(b). This further indicates that the abundant trap levels in LYGAGGCV-2 offer an appropriate energy barrier to sustain a long-term storage of information.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. (a) TL spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 recorded at various delay durations (5 min-1440 h) after 365 nm light irradiating for 100 s. (b) Relative TL integral area ratio for various delay durations.

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Thirdly, Fig. 6 shows the recorded temperature-dependent TL spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 at various excitation temperatures (400-673 K) when irradiated by 365 nm UV light. It is worth noting that the intensity of T1 rapidly decays and its peak position shifts towards higher temperature as the excitation temperature increases and T1 nearly disappears when the excitation temperature increases to 475 K. That’s because the increase of excitation temperature causes the raising of thermal energy, leading to the gradual release of carriers captured by shallow traps owing to the intensive thermal disturbance. Meanwhile, the intensity of T2 increases first in a range of 400-525 K (Fig. 6(a)) and then decreases with the excitation temperature further increasing from 525 to 673 K (Fig. 6(b)), which is obviously different from that of T1. The reason for TL increases below 525 K is that the carriers generated by the light irradiation are gradually captured by deep traps, and at the same time the carriers released by the shallow traps owing to thermal disturbance are also captured by deep traps. When the excitation temperature exceeds 525 K, with the help of higher thermal energy, the carriers are no longer stably stay in the deep traps and are gradually released from trap levels, leading to less and less carriers stored in deep traps and a decreased tendency of T2 intensity. This abnormal change in the temperature-dependent TL spectra has been also reported in other material systems [34,35]. Moreover, with the excitation temperature increasing, the peak positions of T1 and T2 shift towards higher temperature region, suggesting that shallow traps are emptied first and then with deep traps empty followed. It, at the same time, shows a continuous distribution of traps in LYGAGGCV-2 [24].

 figure: Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. TL spectra recorded at various excitation temperatures (a) in the range of lower 400-525 K. (b) in the range of higher 525-673 K. All TL spectra are measured with a heating rate of 0.5 K/s.

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For a more comprehensive understanding of the “wave fluctuation” of TL intensity variation in the wide temperature range of 400-673 K shown in Fig. 6, the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra were recorded using λex=450 nm, as indicated in Fig. 7(a), measured from 298 K to 573 K for LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor. With the tested temperature increasing, the luminescence intensity has experienced a process of first decreasing, then increasing and finally decreasing, also a “wave fluctuation” variation. The relationship between the tested temperature and the relative PL integrated intensity area (the wavelength ranges from 460 nm to 650 nm) is plotted in Fig. 7(b). The reason for the abnormal increase between 423 K and 498 K is related to the charge carriers stored in traps, that is to say, the carriers captured by traps are gradually released to continuously compensate for the luminescence intensity loss due to temperature quenching under the more intensive disturbance of thermal energy. What’s more, this abnormal temperature range of 423-498 K is fantastically consistent with the above temperature range for T2 intensity enhancement in temperature-dependent TL spectra (right part, Fig. 6(a)), indicating that the abnormal increase in PL intensity directly links to the properties of deep traps and the behaviors of carriers captured by deep traps. Further, the decrease of luminescence intensity above 498 K may be from the normal non-radiative transition occurring in the high temperature heating process, and because of the much higher thermal energy, the carriers stored stably in deep traps are less and difficult to continuously compensate for the loss of emission intensity. The particular phenomena have been discovered in other materials in the literatures, such as Sr3SiO5:Eu2+,Tm3+ exhibits an undetectable emission intensity loss with increasing temperature from 303 K to 393 K [36]. Moreover, at 573 K, for LYGAGGCV-2, its luminous intensity can still maintain 91.6% of that measured at room temperature, exhibiting a good fluorescence thermal stability, much higher than YGAG:Ce,V phosphor [24].

 figure: Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. (a) Temperature-dependent PL spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 recorded at various temperatures (298-573 K) under 450 nm excitation. The inset is enlarged partial high temperature-dependent PL spectra from 475 nm to 550 nm. (b) Normalized temperature dependence of integrated area of emission spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2.

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Obviously, on the basis of the above TL results, it is noted that LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors, after annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere, own abundant traps, which may be associated with defects related to oxygen vacancies. To further figure out the trap types, a combining of TL results with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) results is used to obtain a deep analyzation. Generally, according to the presented TL results, it can be reasonably speculated that the deep or shallow traps in LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors after annealing in an oxygen-deficient reductive atmosphere might be from oxygen vacancies. In addition, the existence of oxygen vacancies has been evidenced by EPR spectra measurements, as depicted in Fig. 8, where the black curve was recorded without 365 nm light irradiation and the red curve was recorded after 365 nm light irradiation for 5 min. The EPR spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 shows a sharp g-factor value of 2.0023, generally assigned to the oxygen vacancies with unpaired electrons [37,38]. What’s more, the EPR peak intensity after 365 nm light irradiation is stronger than that without 365 nm light irradiation, because the traps in phosphors could constantly capture electrons under excitation by 365 nm light. Therefore, various unpaired electrons are captured by plenty of oxygen vacancies, resulting in the EPR intensity increases.

 figure: Fig. 8.

Fig. 8. EPR spectra of LYGAGGCV-2. Black curve: without 365 nm light irradiation. Red curve: after 365 nm light irradiation for 5 min.

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3.3 Characterization and display of optical information storage

Based on above results, there are plenty of traps in LYGAGGCV-2, which are helpful to improve optical information storage properties. Therefore, strategies of optical stimulation and high-temperature thermal stimulation are adopted to vividly demonstrate the optical information storage properties of this phosphor. Normally, PSL is a release process of carriers stored in the traps by means of optical stimulation and is closely related to the properties of traps. Under the stimulation of 808 nm laser, the pre-irradiated LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor presents a strong PSL emission even after 5 min decay in the dark. As shown in Fig. 9(a), there is no significant difference of emission peak position and spectrum shape between PSL emission spectrum (λex=808 nm) and PL emission spectrum (λex=450 nm). The PSL spectrum shows an asymmetric emission peak at ∼500 nm, which is due to the 5d1→4f transition of Ce3+, demonstrating the homology of the activator in the PL process (Fig. 9(b)).

 figure: Fig. 9.

Fig. 9. (a) PSL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2, with 365 nm light irradiating for 100 s before measured, delayed 5 min, excited at 808 nm. (b) PL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2, excited at 450 nm.

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As an alternative to photostimulation, external thermal stimulation can also trigger the retrieval of different information using photomasks methods. Hence, we prepared a flexible LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor film to vividly show a rapid photo-stimulated write-in and thermal-stimulated read-out approach for the whole storage media of film through a series of schematic pictures of optical information storage. The schematic diagram of information writing (405 nm laser irradiation) and reading (a 250 °C hot plate heating) is shown in Fig. 10(b-c), without mask. When covering mask on the film, at first, optical information can be encoded on the flexible film by a 405 nm laser irradiation, passing through three different hollowed patterns i-iii marked in Fig. 10 (d). The hollowed patterns are formed by photomasks and highlighted by the dotted lines. After irradiation, optical patterns can be decoded by heating the irradiated film on a 250 °C hot plate, with emitting a strong cyan light pattern, as shown in Fig. 10(e). The cyan emitting patterns on film shown in Fig. 10(e) is consistent with the hollowed mask patterns in Fig. 10(d). The demonstration result indicates that only the optical information is pre-written on the film by the 405 nm laser irradiation, the thermal stimulation can generate a bright cyan light read-out information, otherwise no visible information is detectable.

 figure: Fig. 10.

Fig. 10. (a) Photo of the flexible LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor film. Schematic illustration of information storage on the sheet of film: (b) written-in with 405 nm laser irradiation, with cyan light emitting; (c) read-out by heating on a 250 °C hot plate, with cyan light emitting; (d) different hollowed patterns created by photomasks, covered on the sheet of film (i, ii, and iii); (e) optical information read-out, passing through the different patterns, by putting the covered sheet of film on a 250 °C hot plate (i-1, ii-1 and iii-1), after 405 nm laser irradiating for 5 min.

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4. Conclusion

To induce the traps for realizing optical information storage, the designed and prepared multicomponent LuYGdAl4GaO12:Ce3+,V3+ (LYGAGGCV-0) phosphor was annealed in two different atmospheres, which could effectively modulate trap properties, especially annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere. Remarkably, after annealing in a weak reducing atmosphere, the TL intensity of LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor significantly increases, indicating that there are plenty of traps generated in the phosphor. Additionally, the time- and temperature-dependent TL results show the existence of m000ultiple trap levels with continuous distribution in the LYGAGGCV-2 rather than discrete trap levels. Further, LYGAGGCV-2 was found to be a promising phosphor for optical information storage, which has been confirmed that the peak position of PL upon 365 nm excitation is consistent with the peak position of PSL under NIR stimulation of 808 nm laser. And a demonstration confirmed the optical information write-in and read-out performance in the phosphor film, by a 405 nm laser as write-in light source and thermal stimulating as read-out source. Based on above results, the presented LYGAGGCV-2 is a good candidate material for optical information storage.

Funding

the Shanghai Sailing Program (20YF1456300); Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (20ZR1465900); National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFB0704103).

Acknowledgements

Many thanks for the financial supports from the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFB0704103), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 20ZR1465900), and the Shanghai Sailing Program (Grant No. 20YF1456300).

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

Supplemental document

See Supplement 1 for supporting content.

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8. Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018). [CrossRef]  

9. B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018). [CrossRef]  

10. T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016). [CrossRef]  

11. X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013). [CrossRef]  

12. W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018). [CrossRef]  

13. J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018). [CrossRef]  

14. Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Xu, S. Tanabe, A.-D. Sontakke, and J. Ueda, “Near-infrared multi-wavelengths long persistent luminescence of Nd3+ ion through persistent energy transfer in Ce3+, Cr3+ co-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12 for the first and second bio-imaging windows,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081903 (2015). [CrossRef]  

16. Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015). [CrossRef]  

17. Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014). [CrossRef]  

18. S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014). [CrossRef]  

19. A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013). [CrossRef]  

20. P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018). [CrossRef]  

21. Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017). [CrossRef]  

22. S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019). [CrossRef]  

23. C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018). [CrossRef]  

24. W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018). [CrossRef]  

25. H.-B. Liu, B.-L. Feng, L. Luo, C.-L. Han, and P.-A. Tanner, “Near infrared photostimulated persistent luminescence and information storage of SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3375 (2016). [CrossRef]  

26. F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013). [CrossRef]  

27. D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016). [CrossRef]  

28. R.-D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomie distances in halides and chaleogenides,” Acta Cryst A 32(5), 751–767 (1976). [CrossRef]  

29. J. Ueda, S. Miyano, and S. Tanabe, “Formation of deep electron traps by Yb3+ codoping leads to superlong persistent luminescence in Ce3+-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(24), 20652–20660 (2018). [CrossRef]  

30. K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, D. Poelman, and P.-F. Smet, “Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors,” Phys. Rev. B 87(4), 045126 (2013). [CrossRef]  

31. R. Chen, “On the calculation of activation energies and frequency factors from glow curves,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), 570–585 (1969). [CrossRef]  

32. J. Trojan-Piegza and E. Zych, “Afterglow luminescence of Lu2O3:Eu ceramics synthesized at different atmospheres,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(9), 4215–4220 (2010). [CrossRef]  

33. J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Niittykoski, J. Holsa, and E. Zych, “Thermoluminescence and kinetics of persistent luminescence of vacuum-sintered Tb3+,-doped and Tb3+,Ca2+-codoped Lu2O3materials,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2252–2261 (2008). [CrossRef]  

34. E. Mihóková, M. Fasoli, F. Moretti, M. Nikl, V. Jarý, G. Ren, and A. Vedda, “Defect states in Pr3+ doped lutetium pyrosilicate,” Opt. Mater. 34(5), 872–877 (2012). [CrossRef]  

35. P.-F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012). [CrossRef]  

36. X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018). [CrossRef]  

37. Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018). [CrossRef]  

38. J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. C.-Y. Wang, Z.-H. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Q. Liu, M.-X. Deng, X. Xu, Z.-Z. Zhou, and H. He, “Modulating trap properties by Nd3+- Eu3+ co-doping in Sr2SnO4 host for optical information storage,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4249–4257 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Wang, H.-W. Wang, J.-H. Huang, J.-C. Zhou, and P.-F. Liu, “Trap distribution and photo-stimulated luminescence in LaSrAl3O7:Eu2+ long-lasting phosphors for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 103(1), 315–323 (2020).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  9. B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  12. W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  14. Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Xu, S. Tanabe, A.-D. Sontakke, and J. Ueda, “Near-infrared multi-wavelengths long persistent luminescence of Nd3+ ion through persistent energy transfer in Ce3+, Cr3+ co-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12 for the first and second bio-imaging windows,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081903 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  16. Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  18. S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  22. S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  23. C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  25. H.-B. Liu, B.-L. Feng, L. Luo, C.-L. Han, and P.-A. Tanner, “Near infrared photostimulated persistent luminescence and information storage of SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3375 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  28. R.-D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomie distances in halides and chaleogenides,” Acta Cryst A 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  29. J. Ueda, S. Miyano, and S. Tanabe, “Formation of deep electron traps by Yb3+ codoping leads to superlong persistent luminescence in Ce3+-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(24), 20652–20660 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, D. Poelman, and P.-F. Smet, “Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors,” Phys. Rev. B 87(4), 045126 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. R. Chen, “On the calculation of activation energies and frequency factors from glow curves,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), 570–585 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  32. J. Trojan-Piegza and E. Zych, “Afterglow luminescence of Lu2O3:Eu ceramics synthesized at different atmospheres,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(9), 4215–4220 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  33. J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Niittykoski, J. Holsa, and E. Zych, “Thermoluminescence and kinetics of persistent luminescence of vacuum-sintered Tb3+,-doped and Tb3+,Ca2+-codoped Lu2O3materials,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2252–2261 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  34. E. Mihóková, M. Fasoli, F. Moretti, M. Nikl, V. Jarý, G. Ren, and A. Vedda, “Defect states in Pr3+ doped lutetium pyrosilicate,” Opt. Mater. 34(5), 872–877 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. P.-F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  36. X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  38. J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016).
    [Crossref]

2020 (3)

B. Wang, H.-W. Wang, J.-H. Huang, J.-C. Zhou, and P.-F. Liu, “Trap distribution and photo-stimulated luminescence in LaSrAl3O7:Eu2+ long-lasting phosphors for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 103(1), 315–323 (2020).
[Crossref]

C.-Y. Wang, Z.-H. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Q. Liu, M.-X. Deng, X. Xu, Z.-Z. Zhou, and H. He, “Modulating trap properties by Nd3+- Eu3+ co-doping in Sr2SnO4 host for optical information storage,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4249–4257 (2020).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
[Crossref]

2019 (4)

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (11)

Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Ueda, S. Miyano, and S. Tanabe, “Formation of deep electron traps by Yb3+ codoping leads to superlong persistent luminescence in Ce3+-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(24), 20652–20660 (2018).
[Crossref]

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

H.-B. Liu, B.-L. Feng, L. Luo, C.-L. Han, and P.-A. Tanner, “Near infrared photostimulated persistent luminescence and information storage of SrAl2O4:Eu2+,Dy3+ phosphor,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(11), 3375 (2016).
[Crossref]

D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Xu, S. Tanabe, A.-D. Sontakke, and J. Ueda, “Near-infrared multi-wavelengths long persistent luminescence of Nd3+ ion through persistent energy transfer in Ce3+, Cr3+ co-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12 for the first and second bio-imaging windows,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, D. Poelman, and P.-F. Smet, “Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors,” Phys. Rev. B 87(4), 045126 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

E. Mihóková, M. Fasoli, F. Moretti, M. Nikl, V. Jarý, G. Ren, and A. Vedda, “Defect states in Pr3+ doped lutetium pyrosilicate,” Opt. Mater. 34(5), 872–877 (2012).
[Crossref]

P.-F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Trojan-Piegza and E. Zych, “Afterglow luminescence of Lu2O3:Eu ceramics synthesized at different atmospheres,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(9), 4215–4220 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Niittykoski, J. Holsa, and E. Zych, “Thermoluminescence and kinetics of persistent luminescence of vacuum-sintered Tb3+,-doped and Tb3+,Ca2+-codoped Lu2O3materials,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2252–2261 (2008).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

R.-D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomie distances in halides and chaleogenides,” Acta Cryst A 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

R. Chen, “On the calculation of activation energies and frequency factors from glow curves,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), 570–585 (1969).
[Crossref]

Abdukayum, A.

A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bos, A.-J.-J.

K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, D. Poelman, and P.-F. Smet, “Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors,” Phys. Rev. B 87(4), 045126 (2013).
[Crossref]

P.-F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.-Q.

D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.-T.

A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

R. Chen, “On the calculation of activation energies and frequency factors from glow curves,” J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), 570–585 (1969).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-B.

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.-W.

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-Q.

B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y.

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chuang, Y.-J.

F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cui, C.-E.

P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Deng, M.-X.

Dong, G.-P.

Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, P.

P.-F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dou, X.-C.

J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fan, W.

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, X.-T.

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Fasoli, M.

E. Mihóková, M. Fasoli, F. Moretti, M. Nikl, V. Jarý, G. Ren, and A. Vedda, “Defect states in Pr3+ doped lutetium pyrosilicate,” Opt. Mater. 34(5), 872–877 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feng, B.-L.

Fujihala, M.

S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ge, Y.-R.

J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016).
[Crossref]

Han, C.-L.

Han, G.

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hao, J.-H.

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

He, H.

Hirosaki, N.

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Holsa, J.

J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Niittykoski, J. Holsa, and E. Zych, “Thermoluminescence and kinetics of persistent luminescence of vacuum-sintered Tb3+,-doped and Tb3+,Ca2+-codoped Lu2O3materials,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2252–2261 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hou, Y.-F.

Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-H.

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.-H.

B. Wang, H.-W. Wang, J.-H. Huang, J.-C. Zhou, and P.-F. Liu, “Trap distribution and photo-stimulated luminescence in LaSrAl3O7:Eu2+ long-lasting phosphors for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 103(1), 315–323 (2020).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, P.

P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018).
[Crossref]

D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
[Crossref]

Huang, Q.-M.

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Jarý, V.

E. Mihóková, M. Fasoli, F. Moretti, M. Nikl, V. Jarý, G. Ren, and A. Vedda, “Defect states in Pr3+ doped lutetium pyrosilicate,” Opt. Mater. 34(5), 872–877 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.-C.

P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

P. Liu, Y.-F. Liu, C.-E. Cui, L. Wang, J.-W. Qiao, P. Huang, Q.-F. Shi, Y. Tian, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced luminescence and afterglow by heat-treatment in reducing atmosphere to synthesize the Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ persistent phosphor for AC-LEDs,” J. Alloys Compd. 731, 389–396 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.-Y.

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

Jiang, T.

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiao, Q.

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jin, Y.-H.

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ju, G.-F.

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

C.-L. Wang, Y.-H. Jin, Y. Lv, G.-F. Ju, D. Liu, L. Chen, Z.-Z. Li, and Y.-H. Hu, “Trap distribution tailoring guided design of super-long-persistent phosphor Ba2SiO4:Eu2+,Ho3+ and photostimulable luminescence for optical information storage,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(22), 6058–6067 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kamimura, S.

S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, D.-S.

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
[Crossref]

Li, H.-H.

W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, J.-L.

J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, K.-X.

Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, W.-H.

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, W.-P.

Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-L.

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, X.-S.

B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. Y.

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J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016).
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Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
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Liu, H.-R.

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Liu, Y.-F.

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Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
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Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
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Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
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Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
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K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, D. Poelman, and P.-F. Smet, “Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors,” Phys. Rev. B 87(4), 045126 (2013).
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J. Ueda, S. Miyano, and S. Tanabe, “Formation of deep electron traps by Yb3+ codoping leads to superlong persistent luminescence in Ce3+-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(24), 20652–20660 (2018).
[Crossref]

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J. Ueda, S. Miyano, and S. Tanabe, “Formation of deep electron traps by Yb3+ codoping leads to superlong persistent luminescence in Ce3+-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Gallium Garnet Phosphors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(24), 20652–20660 (2018).
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K. Van den Eeckhout, A.-J.-J. Bos, D. Poelman, and P.-F. Smet, “Revealing trap depth distributions in persistent phosphors,” Phys. Rev. B 87(4), 045126 (2013).
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R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-F. Liu, P. Liu, L. Wang, C.-E. Cui, H.-C. Jiang, and J. Jiang, “Enhanced optical performance by two-step solid-state reactions to synthesize the yellow persistent Gd3Al2Ga3O12:Ce3+ phosphor for AC-LED,” Chem. Commun. 53(77), 10636–10639 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
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R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-H.

W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.-S.

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wen, Y.-G.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.-Y.

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiang, X.-Q.

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xie, J.

F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, R.-J.

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xin, S.-Y.

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xiong, G.-T.

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.-N.

S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, S. Tanabe, A.-D. Sontakke, and J. Ueda, “Near-infrared multi-wavelengths long persistent luminescence of Nd3+ ion through persistent energy transfer in Ce3+, Cr3+ co-doped Y3Al2Ga3O12 for the first and second bio-imaging windows,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(8), 081903 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

C.-Y. Wang, Z.-H. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Q. Liu, M.-X. Deng, X. Xu, Z.-Z. Zhou, and H. He, “Modulating trap properties by Nd3+- Eu3+ co-doping in Sr2SnO4 host for optical information storage,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4249–4257 (2020).
[Crossref]

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.-H.

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xue, Z.-L.

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

S. Kamimura, C.-N. Xu, H. Yamada, N. Terasaki, and M. Fujihala, “Long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Nd3+-doped Sr2SnO4 for in vivo optical imaging,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(9), 092403 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.-T.

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, W.-Z.

F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, X.-P.

A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.-X.

W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-H.

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.-N.

J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.-L.

X.-H. Xu, L.-T. Yan, X.-L. Yu, H. Yu, T. Jiang, Q. Jiao, and J. Qiu, “Concentration-dependent effects of optical storage properties in CSSO:Dy,” Mater. Lett. 99, 158–160 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, L.-F.

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zeng, Q.-G.

B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zeng, S.-J.

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhan, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Zhan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, L.-F. Yuan, G.-F. Ju, Y. Lv, and Y.-H. Hu, “Cr3+-doped Mg4Ga4Ge3O16 near-infrared phosphor membrane for optical information storage and recording,” J. Alloys and Compd. 777, 991–1000 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.-B.

J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.-W.

J. Wang, J.-L. Li, J.-N. Yu, H.-W. Zhang, and B.-B. Zhang, “Large hollow cavity luminous nanoparticles with near-infrared persistent luminescence and tunable sizes for tumor afterglow imaging and chemo-/photodynamic therapies,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4246–4258 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.-C.

W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.-Q.

S.-S. Lin, H. Lin, Q.-M. Huang, Y. Cheng, J. Xu, J.-M. Wang, X.-Q. Xiang, C.-Y. Wang, L.-Q. Zhang, and Y.-S. Wang, “A Photostimulated BaSi2O5:Eu2+,Nd3+ phosphor-in-glass for erasable-rewritable optical storage medium,” Laser Photonics Rev. 13(4), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

C.-Y. Wang, Z.-H. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Q. Liu, M.-X. Deng, X. Xu, Z.-Z. Zhou, and H. He, “Modulating trap properties by Nd3+- Eu3+ co-doping in Sr2SnO4 host for optical information storage,” Opt. Express 28(3), 4249–4257 (2020).
[Crossref]

R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.-W.

Z.-J. Li, Y.-W. Zhang, X. Wu, L. Huang, D.-S. Li, W. Fan, and G. Han, “Direct aqueous-phase synthesis of sub-10 nm “luminous pearls” with enhanced in vivo renewable near-infrared persistent luminescence,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(16), 5304–5307 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.-Y.

Y.-Y. Zhang, L.-H. Luo, K.-X. Li, W.-P. Li, and Y.-F. Hou, “Light-controlled reversible photoluminescence modulation in photochromic Sr2SnO4:Eu3+,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 51(36), 365102 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q.

A. Abdukayum, J.-T. Chen, Q. Zhao, and X.-P. Yan, “Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135(38), 14125–14133 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

R. Hu, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhao, X.-S. Wang, G. Li, and C.-Y. Wang, “UV–Vis-NIR broadband-photostimulated luminescence of LiTaO3:Bi3+ longpersistent phosphor and the optical storage properties,” Chem. Eng. J. 392, 124807 (2020).
[Crossref]

Zhen, Z.

F. Liu, W.-Z. Yan, Y.-J. Chuang, Z. Zhen, J. Xie, and Z.-W. Pan, “Photostimulated near-infrared persistent luminescence as a new optical read-out from Cr3+-doped LiGa5O8,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1554 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zheng, P.

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z.-H.

Zhong, J.-S.

D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, D.-C.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, X.-H. Xu, D.-C. Zhou, Y. Yang, J.-B. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Effect of defect distribution on the optical storage properties of strontium gallates with a low-dimensional chain structure,” Inorg. Chem. 55(2), 894–901 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.-C.

B. Wang, H.-W. Wang, J.-H. Huang, J.-C. Zhou, and P.-F. Liu, “Trap distribution and photo-stimulated luminescence in LaSrAl3O7:Eu2+ long-lasting phosphors for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 103(1), 315–323 (2020).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, X.-S. Li, Y.-Q. Chen, Y. Chen, J.-C. Zhou, and Q.-G. Zeng, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Pr3+-doped layered perovskite phosphor for optical data storage,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 101(10), 4598–4607 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.-H.

Z.-W. Long, Y.-G. Wen, J.-H. Zhou, J.-B. Qiu, H. Wu, X. Xu, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, J. Yu, and Q. Wang, “No-interference reading for optical information storage and ultra-multiple anti-counterfeiting applications by designing targeted recombination in charge carrier trapping phosphors,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(10), 1900006 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

X.-T. Fan, W.-B. Chen, S.-Y. Xin, Z.-C. Liu, M. Zhou, X. Yu, D.-C. Zhou, X.-H. Xu, and J.-B. Qiu, “Achieving long-term zero-thermal-quenching with the assistance of carriers from deep traps,” J. Mater. Chem. C 6(12), 2978–2982 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, S.-F.

Y. Li, S.-F. Zhou, Y. Y. Li, K. Sharafudeen, Z. J. Ma, G.-P. Dong, M.-Y. Peng, and J.-R. Qiu, “Long persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Cr3+-doped Zn–Ga–Sn–O phosphors for deep and reproducible tissue imaging,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(15), 2657–2663 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, T.-L.

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

D.-Q. Chen, Y. Zhou, W. Xu, J.-S. Zhong, and P. Huang, “Persistent and photo-stimulated luminescence in Ce3+/Cr3+ activated Y3Al2Ga3O12 phosphors and transparent phosphor-in-glass,” J. Mater. Chem. C 4(48), 11457–11464 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.-Z.

Zhuang, Y.-X.

Y.-X. Zhuang, L. Wang, Y. Lv, T.-L. Zhou, and R.-J. Xie, “Optical data storage and multicolor emission readout on flexible films using deep-trap persistent luminescence materials,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 28(8), 1705769 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

W.-H. Li, Y.-X. Zhuang, P. Zheng, T.-L. Zhou, J. Xu, J. Ueda, S. Tanabe, L. Wang, and R.-J. Xie, “Tailoring trap depth and emission wavelength in Y3Al5−xGaxO12:Ce3+,V3+ phosphor-in-glass films for optical information storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(32), 27150–27159 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zou, Z.-H.

W.-X. Wang, J.-X. Yang, Z.-H. Zou, J.-C. Zhang, H.-H. Li, and Y.-H. Wang, “An isolated deep-trap phosphor for optical data storage,” Ceram. Int. 44(8), 10010–10014 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zu, B.-Y.

J. Qu, Y.-R. Ge, B.-Y. Zu, Y.-X. Li, and X.-C. Dou, “Transition-metal-doped p-Type ZnO nanoparticle-based sensory array for instant discrimination of explosive vapors,” Small 12(10), 1369–1377 (2016).
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J. Trojan-Piegza and E. Zych, “Afterglow luminescence of Lu2O3:Eu ceramics synthesized at different atmospheres,” J. Phys. Chem. C 114(9), 4215–4220 (2010).
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J. Trojan-Piegza, J. Niittykoski, J. Holsa, and E. Zych, “Thermoluminescence and kinetics of persistent luminescence of vacuum-sintered Tb3+,-doped and Tb3+,Ca2+-codoped Lu2O3materials,” Chem. Mater. 20(6), 2252–2261 (2008).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (5)

D. Liu, L.-F. Yuan, Y.-H. Jin, H.-Y. Wu, Y. Lv, G.-T. Xiong, G.-F. Ju, L. Chen, S.-H. Yang, and Y.-H. Hu, “Tailoring multidimensional traps for rewritable multilevel optical data storage,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11(38), 35023–35029 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y.-X. Zhuang, Y. Lv, L. Wang, W.-W. Chen, T.-L. Zhou, T. Takeda, N. Hirosaki, and R.-J. Xie, “Trap Depth Engineering of SrSi2O22N2:Ln2+,Ln3+ (Ln2+ = Yb, Eu; Ln3+ = Dy, Ho, Er) persistent luminescence materials for information storage applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(2), 1854–1864 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z.-L. Xue, X.-L. Li, Y.-B. Li, M.-Y. Jiang, H.-R. Liu, S.-J. Zeng, and J.-H. Hao, “X-ray-activated near-infrared persistent luminescent probe for deep-tissue and renewable in vivo bioimaging,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(27), 22132–22142 (2017).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

NameDescription
Supplement 1       Supporting Information

Data availability

Data underlying the results presented in this paper are not publicly available at this time but may be obtained from the authors upon reasonable request.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) XRD patterns of LYGAGGCV-0 without annealing, LYGAGGCV-1 annealed in air, LYGAGGCV-2 annealed in RA, and the standard pattern of Y3Al4GaO12 (JCPDS No. 89-6658).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) PL spectra excited at 450 nm and (b) normalized PLE spectra monitored at 500 nm, for LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) TL spectra and relative TL integrated area ratios (inset) of LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2. (b) 3D TL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2. All TL spectra are measured after 365 nm light covering for 100 s and delayed 5 min, with a heating rate of 0.5 K/s.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) TL spectra and (b) the integrated intensity of T1 and T2, recorded at various excitation durations (5-600 s), for LYGAGGCV-2 sample.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) TL spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 recorded at various delay durations (5 min-1440 h) after 365 nm light irradiating for 100 s. (b) Relative TL integral area ratio for various delay durations.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. TL spectra recorded at various excitation temperatures (a) in the range of lower 400-525 K. (b) in the range of higher 525-673 K. All TL spectra are measured with a heating rate of 0.5 K/s.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Temperature-dependent PL spectra of LYGAGGCV-2 recorded at various temperatures (298-573 K) under 450 nm excitation. The inset is enlarged partial high temperature-dependent PL spectra from 475 nm to 550 nm. (b) Normalized temperature dependence of integrated area of emission spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. EPR spectra of LYGAGGCV-2. Black curve: without 365 nm light irradiation. Red curve: after 365 nm light irradiation for 5 min.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) PSL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2, with 365 nm light irradiating for 100 s before measured, delayed 5 min, excited at 808 nm. (b) PL spectrum of LYGAGGCV-2, excited at 450 nm.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. (a) Photo of the flexible LYGAGGCV-2 phosphor film. Schematic illustration of information storage on the sheet of film: (b) written-in with 405 nm laser irradiation, with cyan light emitting; (c) read-out by heating on a 250 °C hot plate, with cyan light emitting; (d) different hollowed patterns created by photomasks, covered on the sheet of film (i, ii, and iii); (e) optical information read-out, passing through the different patterns, by putting the covered sheet of film on a 250 °C hot plate (i-1, ii-1 and iii-1), after 405 nm laser irradiating for 5 min.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. TL peaks with calculated trap depth of LYGAGGCV-0, LYGAGGCV-1, and LYGAGGCV-2 phosphors

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