Expand this Topic clickable element to expand a topic
Skip to content
Optica Publishing Group

Electric field induced optical anisotropy of P3HT nanofibers in a liquid solution

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

The nanofiber morphology of regioregular Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) is a 1D crystalline structure organized by ππ stacking of the backbone chains. In this study, we report the impact of electric field on the orientation and optical properties of P3HT nanofibers dispersed in liquid solution. We demonstrate that alternating electric field aligns nanofibers, whereas static electric field forces them to migrate towards the cathode. The alignment of nanofibers introduces anisotropic optical properties, which can be dynamically manipulated until the solvent has evaporated. Time resolved spectroscopic measurements revealed that the electro-optical response time decreases significantly with the magnitude of applied electric field. Thus, for electric field 1.3 Vμm1 the response time was measured as low as 20 ms, while for 0.65 Vμm1 it was 110-150 ms. Observed phenomenon is the first mention of P3HT supramolecules associated with electro-optical effect. Proposed method provides real time control over the orientation of nanofibers, which is a starting point for a novel practical implementation. With further development P3HT nanofibers can be used individually as an anisotropic solution or as an active component in a guest-host system.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

1. Introduction

In recent years, conjugated polymers have attracted much interest due to their ubiquitous applications in different areas of physics, including optics, electronics, photonics and others. Conjugated polymers possess a large variety of interesting and unique properties, and they are relatively simple to fabricate and flexible in use. This makes them attractive for implementation in electro-optics, organic transistors, photovoltaics and other areas.

Polythiophenes, and Poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) in particular, are the most studied conjugated polymers with semiconducting properties, and have been applied widely in semiconductor devices, solar cells, diodes and detectors [1–5 ]. An essential interest to P3HT is caused by the ability to crystallize into 1D and 2D structures through the mechanism of ππ stacking and van der Waals interactions [3]. The crystallization of P3HT typically takes place during controlled evaporation of a solvent after the solution of P3HT is deposited on a substrate [1]. In this case, the orientation of nanocrystals can be parallel to the substrate, while their in-plane ordering is random [4]. The morphology and properties of P3HT crystals are highly dependent on the growth conditions and can be identified by the presence of specific peaks at 525, 555 and 610 nm in the absorption spectrum [2, 6–9 ].

High aspect ratio 1D crystals of P3HT are called nanofibers and typically have length of several micrometers and width of around 20-30 nm. Nanofibers grown on a substrate, are interconnected with each other by tie-chain molecules and have a higher charge mobility in the direction of the backbone chain and the ππ stacking axis than along the side chains [1, 10, 11 ]. For mobility sensitive applications, nanofibers with ππ stacking axis parallel to the substrate are more desirable than those with perpendicular orientation, where the former and the latter orientation types are called edge-on and face-on respectively [2, 3, 5, 6, 12, 13 ].

The direction of growth of the P3HT crystals and the out-of-plane anisotropy of the films can be manipulated by external electric field [11, 14–16 ]. There also exist other techniques to control the in-plane orientation of the crystals [1, 13 ]. Among well explored ones are mechanical rubbing, epitaxial solidification, spherulitic crystallization, crystallization in microstructures and others [10, 11, 17–20 ].

In this study, we report the impact of electric field on the orientation and optical properties of the P3HT nanofibers dispersed in solvent [21]. As we show, applied DC and AC bias causes nanofibers to align along the electric field, whereas AC bias does it more efficiently (referred to as AC and DC poling). According to spectrophotomectric measurements the absorption of layers formed after electrical poling is polarization dependent. Time resolved measurements show that response time of nanofibers strongly depends on the magnitude of applied electric field and varies from miliseconds to the order of seconds for different poling conditions.

The impact of AC bias on the orientation of P3HT nanofibers was previously reported [22], however the optical properties of such structure were never studied. Moreover, as we show, the dynamic manipulation of optical anisotropy with response time 20 ms at driving voltage 1.3 Vμm1 is possible. Such controllability is of great importance as introduces approach toward implementation of P3HT nanofibers on a new applicational level [23,24 ].

2. Materials and experiment

The solution containing anisole and P3HT nanofibers was prepared by the mixed solvent method [21]. We used P3HT with molecular weight 45.000 (GPC). The average length of the nanofibers was ≈2 μm and width ≈20 nm.

To implement electric field assisted alignment of the nanofibers, we fabricated a poling device, which consisted of a pair of silver electrodes printed with ink-jet technology on a glass substrate as in Fig. 1 . The distance between the electrodes was 200 μm, whereas the thickness of the silver layer was about 3 μm. According to numerical simulations, the configuration of electric field E in the gap should be uniform and approximated by an expression for parallel plate capacitor as |E|=VL1, where V is the applied voltage and L is the gap width. This device was used for poling and spectrophotometry measurements of the material before and after poling.

 figure: Fig. 1

Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the poling device. V – voltage, EL – printed silver electrodes, GS – glass substrate, D – sample droplet, L – spacing between the electrodes, NF – nanofibers.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

To create an aligned P3HT structure about 1 μl of solution with nanofibers was drop-casted on the poling device, and the poling voltage was applied to the silver electrodes during approximately 10 minutes until the solvent was completely evaporated. After the poling process with DC bias, nanofibers inside the gap migrated toward the cathode and created randomly distributed openings in the dried layer. On the other hand, AC bias (50 Hz) did not lead to directed migration of the material.

In order to qualitively estimate the morphology of the nanofibers after AC poling, SEM imaging was used. Figure 2(a) shows the orientation of the nanofibers precipitated in the gap after evaporation of the solvent without applying the bias. Figure 2(b) shows the alignment of nanofibers in the gap after AC poling.

 figure: Fig. 2

Fig. 2 SEM image of a) unpoled and b) AC poled nanofibers on the substrate between the electrodes |E| vector points the direction of the poling field.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

3. Results and discussions

To quantitatively estimate the influence of AC and DC poling on the ordering of P3HT nanofibers, we measured transmission spectra by focusing the beam from a broadband light source on the area between the electrodes.

Figures 3(a) and 3(b) display the absorption spectra of the unpoled and AC poled samples under polarized and unpolarized light, where - polarization is the one perpendicular to the electric field and, therefore, to aligned nanofibers. In the case of unpoled sample both polarizations are equally absorbed while for the poled one the polarization perpendicular to the nanofibers is absorbed stronger in the region 500 – 620 nm.

 figure: Fig. 3

Fig. 3 Absorption spectrum of the unpoled (a) and AC poled samples (b).

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The ratio between absorption for - and -polarized light (defined as dichroic ratio) at 550 and 610 nm is 1.44 and 1.51, respectively. The dichroic ratio of DC poled samples at 550 and 610 nm is lower and equal to 1.19 and 1.28, respectively, which indicates a weaker absorption due to poor layer homogeneity and a lower degree of anisotropy. The poling conditions giving a higher dichroic ratio and, thus, degree of anisotropy can be found by continious adjustment of the poling voltage, solvent viscosity, concentration and lateral size of nanofibers. However, absorption measurements are not best suited for such routine of optimization and alternative methods should be introduced instead.

The response of nanofibers to sine-shape AC bias of 50 Hz was evaluated by time resolved measurements. The transmission of 532 nm light passing through the droplet of solution containing P3HT nanofibers was monitored at the moment the poling voltage was turned on. To prevent the droplet from rapid drying another glass piece was placed on top using 100-150 μm thick spacers. The results show that the light polarized perpendicular to the nanofibers experiences a drop of transmission, while the parallel polarization increases as shown in Figs. 4(a) and 4(b) . The value of response time was taken at the stabilization point of the signal and depended strongly on the magnitude of applied field as shown in Fig. 5 . Suchwise, the response time for poling field 0.65 Vμm1 was 110-150 ms, while for 0.25 Vμm1 it was 2.9 s. The amplitude of the increase or drop was also proportional to poling field.

 figure: Fig. 4

Fig. 4 The response time of P3HT nanofibers in anisole to 0.65 V/μm poling field. a) light polarized perpendicular to poling field, b) light polarized parallel to poling field and thus nanofibers.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

 figure: Fig. 5

Fig. 5 The response time of P3HT nanofibers in anisole at various poling field.

Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF

The overall phenomenon of poling can be reasonably explained by the redistribution of charge carriers inside the nanofibers. As P3HT nanofibers are p-type semiconductors, external electric field forces positive charges to move along the backbone chain and ππ stacking axis. Since nanofibers are separated from each other and the solvent is nonconductive, holes are trapped inside the crystal domain and accumulated at either end of the nanofiber. In the case of DC bias, accumulated positive charges become dragged together with nanofibers toward the cathode. Such migration produces inhomogeneities in the layer of partially aligned nanofibers. In the case of AC bias, charge motion is limited along the ππ stacking axis from one end of the nanofiber to another. Thus, the electric force acting on the nanofibers is continually changing direction and the resultant linear displacement becomes negligible. During evaporation of the solvent, nanofibers hold their orientation and precipitate on the substrate in an ordered manner.

The migration of supramolecules and carbon nanotubes under DC bias was reported previously and was explained by defects during fabrication step [25,26 ]. As P3HT nanofibers migrate under DC bias only towards cathode this phenomenon is unlikely to be attributed to dielectrophoretic origin. In turn, we assume that such migration happens due to additional positive charge acquired by P3HT nanofibers through solvent-P3HT interaction. It is known that P3HT in anisole can be oxidized under electric potential and become positively charged, while the solvent is reduced [1]. It is also reasonable to assume that charging plays an important role and can intensify the alignment at low voltages.

The response time measurement showed that the rotational relaxation time of nanofibers depends on the magnitude of applied AC field. This observation supports our hypothesis about electrical polarization and redistribution of charge carriers inside the nanofibers. Torque N rotating a symmetrical dipole with charge q and length l under electric field E is expressed by a classical expression:

Nq(E,l)·l·E.

From Eq. (1), it is clear that the dynamical response of the system should be faster with the factor of E . However, it is still unclear whether any repulsive interaction between polarized nanofibers is present, and what is the charge distribution along them. More sophisticated research is required to verify this model.

4. Conclusions

The influence of external electric field on the orientation of P3HT nanofibers and their optical properties was studied. Our research demonstrates that nanofibers in anisole get positively charged and respond to electric field by aligning along the field lines. Spectrophotometric measurements show that aligned nanofibers are optically anisotropic and AC bias leads to a higher ordering compared to DC. The response time of nanofibers in solution to AC bias decreases significantly with the magnitude of the voltage applied.

P3HT nanofibers, with their anisotropic properties, can be combined with LC as it is traditionally being done for creating optical modulating systems. However, we assume that nanofibers can be used individually without the host if reversible switching is organized by a pair of orthogonal electrodes. According to our observations the response of nanofibers in solution to 1.3 Vμm1 poling field increases the transmission signal by 3 dB for the optical path of 100-150 μm. With further development P3HT nanofibers can be configured into a rapid and reversible component in an amplitude modulation device.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by European Uninion (EU) project ICONE (gr. #608099) and in parts by Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF, Grant no EM11-0002).

References and links

1. K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, “Morphology of P3HT in thin films in relation to optical and electrical properties,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 39–82 (2014). [CrossRef]  

2. U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).

3. Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014). [CrossRef]  

4. S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009). [CrossRef]  

5. Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014). [CrossRef]  

6. S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014). [CrossRef]  

7. C. E. Johnson and D. S. Boucher, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) aggregate formation in binary solvent mixtures: An excitonic coupling analysis,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 52(7), 526–538 (2014). [CrossRef]  

8. A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014). [CrossRef]  

9. C. A. Otálora, A. F. Loaiza, and G. Gordillo, “Influence of Solvent on the Molecular Ordering of Thin Films of P3HT: PCBM Blends and Precursor Solution,” IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 1754–1757 (2014).

10. E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

11. F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

12. W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

13. M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

14. K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009). [CrossRef]  

15. A. Bagui and S. S. K. Iyer, “Increase in hole mobility in poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films annealed under electric field during the solvent drying step,” Org. Electron. 15(7), 1387–1395 (2014). [CrossRef]  

16. C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011). [CrossRef]  

17. L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011). [CrossRef]  

18. L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

19. M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Brinkmann and P. Rannou, “Effect of molecular weight on the structure and morphology of oriented thin films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) grown by directional epitaxial solidification,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(1), 101–108 (2007). [CrossRef]  

21. Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012). [CrossRef]  

22. M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004). [CrossRef]  

23. S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008). [CrossRef]  

24. D. Iacopino and G. Redmond, “Synthesis, optical properties and alignment of poly(9,9-dioctylfuorene) nanofibers,” Nanotechnology 25(43), 435607 (2014). [CrossRef]   [PubMed]  

25. L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006). [CrossRef]  

26. M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003). [CrossRef]  

References

  • View by:

  1. K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, “Morphology of P3HT in thin films in relation to optical and electrical properties,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 39–82 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  2. U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).
  3. Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. C. E. Johnson and D. S. Boucher, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) aggregate formation in binary solvent mixtures: An excitonic coupling analysis,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 52(7), 526–538 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. A. Otálora, A. F. Loaiza, and G. Gordillo, “Influence of Solvent on the Molecular Ordering of Thin Films of P3HT: PCBM Blends and Precursor Solution,” IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 1754–1757 (2014).
  10. E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Bagui and S. S. K. Iyer, “Increase in hole mobility in poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films annealed under electric field during the solvent drying step,” Org. Electron. 15(7), 1387–1395 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Brinkmann and P. Rannou, “Effect of molecular weight on the structure and morphology of oriented thin films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) grown by directional epitaxial solidification,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(1), 101–108 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  21. Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  22. M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Iacopino and G. Redmond, “Synthesis, optical properties and alignment of poly(9,9-dioctylfuorene) nanofibers,” Nanotechnology 25(43), 435607 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (10)

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Bagui and S. S. K. Iyer, “Increase in hole mobility in poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films annealed under electric field during the solvent drying step,” Org. Electron. 15(7), 1387–1395 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, “Morphology of P3HT in thin films in relation to optical and electrical properties,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 39–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).

Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. E. Johnson and D. S. Boucher, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) aggregate formation in binary solvent mixtures: An excitonic coupling analysis,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 52(7), 526–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Iacopino and G. Redmond, “Synthesis, optical properties and alignment of poly(9,9-dioctylfuorene) nanofibers,” Nanotechnology 25(43), 435607 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
[Crossref]

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. Brinkmann and P. Rannou, “Effect of molecular weight on the structure and morphology of oriented thin films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) grown by directional epitaxial solidification,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(1), 101–108 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Aryal, M.

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bagui, A.

A. Bagui and S. S. K. Iyer, “Increase in hole mobility in poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films annealed under electric field during the solvent drying step,” Org. Electron. 15(7), 1387–1395 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balasubramanian, S. K.

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bartkowiak, W.

U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).

Bielecka, U.

U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).

Biniek, L.

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolsée, J.-C.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boucher, D. S.

C. E. Johnson and D. S. Boucher, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) aggregate formation in binary solvent mixtures: An excitonic coupling analysis,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 52(7), 526–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

Boyen, H.-G.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, M.

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Brinkmann and P. Rannou, “Effect of molecular weight on the structure and morphology of oriented thin films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) grown by directional epitaxial solidification,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(1), 101–108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cacialli, F.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cardinaletti, I.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chand, S.

K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chandezon, F.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-W.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-L.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. K.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Credgington, D.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Crossland, E.

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Crossland, E. J. C.

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crossland, E. J. W.

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Haen, J.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Loos, M.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Den Boer, D.

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

Deng, L.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Devaux, E.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dierckx, W.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Djurado, D.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doyle, S.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durkut, M.

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ersen, O.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fiore, A.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, F.

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, F. S. U.

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hadley, P.

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hartmann, L.

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.-C.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Iacopino, D.

D. Iacopino and G. Redmond, “Synthesis, optical properties and alignment of poly(9,9-dioctylfuorene) nanofibers,” Nanotechnology 25(43), 435607 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Iyer, S. S. K.

A. Bagui and S. S. K. Iyer, “Increase in hole mobility in poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films annealed under electric field during the solvent drying step,” Org. Electron. 15(7), 1387–1395 (2014).
[Crossref]

Janus, K.

U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).

Jen, W.-M.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Johnson, C. E.

C. E. Johnson and D. S. Boucher, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) aggregate formation in binary solvent mixtures: An excitonic coupling analysis,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 52(7), 526–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kaneto, K.

A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kayunkid, N.

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. H.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. Y.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kumari, K.

K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. H.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-H.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Legrand, J.-F.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lovera, P.

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ludwigs, S.

K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, “Morphology of P3HT in thin films in relation to optical and electrical properties,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 39–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maes, W.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manca, J.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marletta, G.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mas-Torrent, M.

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mielczarek, K.

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miyajima, S.

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Moynihan, S.

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Muhammed, M.

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagamatsu, S.

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nahm, K. S.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nesladek, M.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Carroll, D.

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ong, B. S.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Oosterbaan, W. D.

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palermo, V.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pandey, S. S.

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Prakash, R.

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rahimi, K.

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rannou, P.

M. Brinkmann and P. Rannou, “Effect of molecular weight on the structure and morphology of oriented thin films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) grown by directional epitaxial solidification,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(1), 101–108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Redmond, G.

D. Iacopino and G. Redmond, “Synthesis, optical properties and alignment of poly(9,9-dioctylfuorene) nanofibers,” Nanotechnology 25(43), 435607 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Reiss, P.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiter, G.

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rihtnesberg, D. B.

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roiban, L.

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Samorì, P.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sardone, L.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schenning, P. H. J.

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

Senthil Kumar, M.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sommer, M.

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S. M.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Steiner, U.

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, W.-F.

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sugunan, A.

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Suh, E. K.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takashima, W.

A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, S.

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Toprak, M. S.

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tremel, K.

K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, “Morphology of P3HT in thin films in relation to optical and electrical properties,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 39–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Uttiya, S.

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Esch, J.

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vankar, V. D.

K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vergnat, C.

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q.

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wei, B.

Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, G.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zakhidov, A.

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeng, W.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. X.

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, M.

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

L. Hartmann, K. Tremel, S. Uttiya, E. Crossland, S. Ludwigs, N. Kayunkid, C. Vergnat, and M. Brinkmann, “2D Versus 3D Crystalline Order in Thin Films of Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Oriented by Mechanical Rubbing and Epitaxy,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(21), 4047–4057 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Brinkmann and P. Rannou, “Effect of molecular weight on the structure and morphology of oriented thin films of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) grown by directional epitaxial solidification,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(1), 101–108 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

S. Moynihan, P. Lovera, D. O’Carroll, D. Iacopino, and G. Redmond, “Alignment and dynamic manipulation of conjugated polymer nanowires in nematic liquid crystal hosts,” Adv. Mater. 20(13), 2497–2502 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Sardone, V. Palermo, E. Devaux, D. Credgington, M. de Loos, G. Marletta, F. Cacialli, J. van Esch, and P. Samorì, “Electric-field-assisted alignment of supramolecular fibers,” Adv. Mater. 18(10), 1276–1280 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. J. W. Crossland, K. Tremel, F. Fischer, K. Rahimi, G. Reiter, U. Steiner, and S. Ludwigs, “Anisotropic charge transport in spherulitic poly(3-hexylthiophene) films,” Adv. Mater. 24(6), 839–844 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Polym. Sci. (1)

K. Tremel and S. Ludwigs, “Morphology of P3HT in thin films in relation to optical and electrical properties,” Adv. Polym. Sci. 265, 39–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Kumari, S. Chand, V. D. Vankar, and V. Kumar, “Enhancement in hole current density on polarization in poly(3-hexylthiophene):cadmium selenide quantum dot nanocomposite thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213503 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. X. Zhao, X. Wang, W. Zeng, Z. K. Chen, B. S. Ong, K. Wang, L. Deng, and G. Xu, “Organic photovoltaic power conversion efficiency improved by AC electric field alignment during fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 053305 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

A. Kumar, W. Takashima, K. Kaneto, and R. Prakash, “Nano-dimensional self assembly of regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) in toluene: Structural, optical, and morphological properties,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 131(20), 40931 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

S.-Y. Chuang, H.-L. Chen, W.-H. Lee, Y.-C. Huang, W.-F. Su, W.-M. Jen, and C.-W. Chen, “Regioregularity effects in the chain orientation and optical anisotropy of composite polymer/fullerene films for high-efficiency, large-area organic solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(31), 5554 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. (1)

C. E. Johnson and D. S. Boucher, “Poly(3-hexylthiophene) aggregate formation in binary solvent mixtures: An excitonic coupling analysis,” J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 52(7), 526–538 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Zhou, M. Aryal, K. Mielczarek, A. Zakhidov, and W. Hu, “Hole mobility enhancement by chain alignment in nanoimprinted poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanogratings for organic electronics,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 28(6), 63–67 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Tiwari, W. Takashima, S. K. Balasubramanian, S. Miyajima, S. Nagamatsu, S. S. Pandey, and R. Prakash, “P3HT-fiber-based field-effect transistor: Effects of nanostructure and annealing temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(2), 021601 (2014).
[Crossref]

Macromol. Rapid Commun. (1)

M. Brinkmann, L. Hartmann, L. Biniek, K. Tremel, and N. Kayunkid, “Orienting Semi-Conducting π-Conjugated Polymers,” Macromol. Rapid Commun. 35(1), 9–26 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale (2)

F. S. U. Fischer, K. Tremel, M. Sommer, E. J. C. Crossland, and S. Ludwigs, “Directed crystallization of poly(3-hexylthiophene) in micrometre channels under confinement and in electric fields,” Nanoscale 4(6), 2138–2144 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Roiban, L. Hartmann, A. Fiore, D. Djurado, F. Chandezon, P. Reiss, J.-F. Legrand, S. Doyle, M. Brinkmann, and O. Ersen, “Mapping the 3D distribution of CdSe nanocrystals in highly oriented and nanostructured hybrid P3HT-CdSe films grown by directional epitaxial crystallization,” Nanoscale 4(22), 7212–7220 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (3)

W. Dierckx, W. D. Oosterbaan, J.-C. Bolsée, I. Cardinaletti, W. Maes, H.-G. Boyen, J. D’Haen, M. Nesladek, and J. Manca, “Organic phototransistors using poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres,” Nanotechnology 26(6), 065201 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Iacopino and G. Redmond, “Synthesis, optical properties and alignment of poly(9,9-dioctylfuorene) nanofibers,” Nanotechnology 25(43), 435607 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mas-Torrent, D. Den Boer, M. Durkut, P. Hadley, and P. H. J. Schenning, “Field effect transistors based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) at different length scales,” Nanotechnology 15(4), S265–S269 (2004).
[Crossref]

Org. Electron. (1)

A. Bagui and S. S. K. Iyer, “Increase in hole mobility in poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) films annealed under electric field during the solvent drying step,” Org. Electron. 15(7), 1387–1395 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. (1)

Z. Zhu, B. Wei, and J. Wang, “Self-assembly of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowire networks by a mixed-solvent approach for organic field-effect transistors,” Phys. Status Solidi Rapid Res. Lett. 8(3), 252–255 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. (1)

Y. Zhao, A. Sugunan, D. B. Rihtnesberg, Q. Wang, M. S. Toprak, and M. Muhammed, “Size-tuneable synthesis of photoconducting poly-(3-hexylthiophene) nanofibres and nanocomposites,” Phys. Status Solidi, C Conf. Crit. Rev. 9(7), 1546–1550 (2012).
[Crossref]

Physica E (1)

Z. Zhu, J. Wang, and B. Wei, “Self-assembly of ordered poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanowires for organic field-effect transistor applications,” Physica E 59, 83–87 (2014).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

U. Bielecka, K. Janus, and W. Bartkowiak, “Nanoaggregation of P3HT in chloroform-anisole solution: relationship between morphology and electrical properties,” Proc. SPIE 9185, 9185 (2014).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

M. Senthil Kumar, S. H. Lee, T. Y. Kim, T. H. Kim, S. M. Song, J. W. Yang, K. S. Nahm, and E. K. Suh, “DC electric field assisted alignment of carbon nanotubes on metal electrodes,” Solid-State Electron. 47(11), 2075–2080 (2003).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

C. A. Otálora, A. F. Loaiza, and G. Gordillo, “Influence of Solvent on the Molecular Ordering of Thin Films of P3HT: PCBM Blends and Precursor Solution,” IEEE 40th Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, 1754–1757 (2014).

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic structure of the poling device. V – voltage, EL – printed silver electrodes, GS – glass substrate, D – sample droplet, L – spacing between the electrodes, NF – nanofibers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 SEM image of a) unpoled and b) AC poled nanofibers on the substrate between the electrodes | E | vector points the direction of the poling field.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectrum of the unpoled (a) and AC poled samples (b).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The response time of P3HT nanofibers in anisole to 0.65 V/μm poling field. a) light polarized perpendicular to poling field, b) light polarized parallel to poling field and thus nanofibers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The response time of P3HT nanofibers in anisole at various poling field.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

N q ( E , l ) · l · E .

Metrics

Select as filters


Select Topics Cancel
© Copyright 2022 | Optica Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved