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Experimental demonstration of Bi2Te3 saturable absorption with whispering gallery modes in an InGaAsP microdisk laser

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Abstract

In this study, Bi2Te3 cluster was applied as a saturable absorber to investigate the mode-locking behavior of InGaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) whispering gallery mode (WGM). Under optical excitation, the ultralow saturation absorption of Bi2Te3 from bulk state had modulated the intensity inside the microdisk, multi-lasing at different wavelengths with equal spectral spacing was realized. The achieved pulse repetition rate was as high as an estimated 4 THz. Additionally, a clear degenerate breaking was observed with a frequency shift of approximately 1 THz for each lasing mode. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked WGM laser. These findings may have applications in dual-comb device.

© 2020 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

1. Introduction

Ultrafast lasers are a topic of focus in quantum electronics because of their wide-ranging applications in military, scientific, medical, and industrial field [13]. Since the 1960s, numerous approaches have been proposed and successfully demonstrated to construct mode-locked lasers [46]. Compact and low-cost passively mode-locked lasers based on saturable absorbers (SAs) have become crucial tools to generate ultrafast laser pulses with pulse widths ranging from picoseconds to femtoseconds [79]. In general, saturable absorption (SA) is a special nonlinear phenomenon that quenches the optical absorption under high-intensity light. The properties of SAs, such as their modulation depth and saturation intensity, influence the amplitude and shape of the incident light. Consequently, Q-switching or mode-locking can be realized. Layered SAs have been a noteworthy topic since graphene was first used in a pulsed fiber laser in 2009 [10]. The successes with graphene encouraged researchers to investigate the photonic applications of other 2D materials [15].

In recent years, some 2D materials (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides [11,12], black phosphorous [13,14], Antimonene [16] and MXene [17]) have been successfully used as SAs in ultrashort pulse lasers [18]. Compared with the above-mentioned materials which the saturable intensities were at least up to MW/cm2, topological insulators (TIs) possessed ultralow saturation intensities (below 1 kW/cm2) result from bulk state quickly saturation [19]. The ultrasensitive optical nonlinearity led to over-saturation behavior as the pump power increases and limited the application in pulse lasers. However, by employing proper cavity engineering to prevent over-saturation, the first continuous-wave (CW) mode-locking solid state laser based on Bi2Te3 sheet was successfully demonstrated with a repetition rate of approximately 1 GHz [2021]. Of note, TIs exhibit long-term stability and special properties due to their intrinsic bulk states, which typically have ultrafast relaxation time (about few ps) [22]. In addition, short pulse mode-locking laser with graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure absorber was realized, and the pulse duration can reach as narrow as hundreds of fs [23]. With careful lasing design, Bi2Te3 (or TIs) can be a potential material for mode-locked light sources with very high repetition rates and ultra-short pulse.

Recently, mode locking lasers with GHz-level repetition rates have been realized and shown their role for application [24]. In addition, by using the techniques of harmonic or rational harmonic mode-locking (HML/RHML), tens of GHz operation were also reported [2527]. However, compared with typical mode-locking approaches, the pulse quality of the RHML approach is limited. Fortunately, rapid improvements in semiconductor processes have increased the practicality of microcavities, which has led to mode spacing of tens or hundreds of GHz within cavities. Therefore, repetition rates at the GHz or even higher levels have become an important issue and have attracted significant attention [2830].

Among the various approaches, high-quality microdisk cavity lasers have been of particular interest for applications in photonic integrated circuits due to their promising and versatile optical functions [3133]. Moreover, cavities with whispering gallery modes (WGMs) have become one class of excellent candidates for compact semiconductor lasers for chip-scale integrated systems. For mode-locking operation, Matsko et al. demonstrated the first active mode-locking WGM laser with a repetition rate at tens of GHz [34]. Unfortunately, there has not been additional progress regarding WGM-based pulsed lasers.

Generally speaking, without tip or waveguide coupling, the pumping efficient is somehow low in microdisk cavity laser. Consequently, the output of WGM is weak as well. This indicates that the saturable intensity of the SAs covered on the microdisk should be low enough for successfully modulating the intensity inside the microdisk to achieve the requirement for mode-locking. In this study, by using Bi2Te3 as ultrasensitive SAs, we investigated InGaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) WGM-locking behavior. Under optical excitation, multi-lasing with equal spectral spacing was observed and attributed to mode-locking behavior. A repetition rate over 4 THz was accordingly estimated from the spectrum. Additionally, clear degenerate breaking was observed with a frequency shift of approximately 1 THz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked behavior WGM, which may find applications in dual-comb devices.

2. Device fabrication

To demonstrate Bi2Te3 SA with WGMs, a microcavity laser with two elements, a high-quality microdisk cavity laser as the coherent photon source and a Bi2Te3 cluster as the absorber, was prepared. The microdisk cavity was implanted in an InGaAsP layer on the top surface of a sapphire substrate. The InGaAsP layer contained four quantum wells, and the device was designed to support gain in the near-infrared optical communication wavelength regime. The InGaAsP MQW epitaxial wafer was directly bonded on a single-side-polished sapphire wafer at 480°C. The original InP substrate was removed via wet etching in an HCl solution. It provides better optical mode confinement in InGaAsP MQW gain medium due to high-refractive-index InGaAsP placed on low-refractive-index sapphire substrate. Moreover, the high thermal conductivity sapphire substrate supported a higher excitation intensity tolerance, which enabled the lasing cavities to operate under continuous wave (CW) laser excitation at room temperature [30].

For fabricating the lasing cavities, a 240-nm- thick silicon nitride (Si3N4) layer was first deposited on the InGaAsP MQW sapphire wafer as a hard etching mask for the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The microdisk patterns were defined through electron beam lithography with a poly-methyl methacrylate resist (PMMA, 950 A5, MicroChem) at a 30 keV accelerating voltage. Next, a two-step reactive ion etching was used to transfer the microdisk pattern from the PMMA to the Si3N4 and from the Si3N4 to InGaAsP MQW at room temperature in an inductively coupled plasma system. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to photograph the InGaAsP MQW microdisk, which was presented in Fig. 1(a). A Bi2Te3 powder was prepared by mechanically exfoliating hexagonal Bi2Te3 single crystals with uniform morphologies to examine the absorption effects with the cavity lasing modes. We dispersed the powders in ethanol and then subjected them to ultra-sonication for 8 hours to obtain Bi2Te3 sheets. The concentration of the Bi2Te3 in the dispersion was 3 mg/cm3, and then dropped on the fabricated microdisk cavities and then twice spin coat at 1000 rpm. The Bi2Te3 cluster was accordingly placed on the top edge of the 10-µm-diameter microdisk, as demonstrated in the SEM image of Fig. 1(b). These procedures ware similar to our previous studies that for pulsed solid state lasers and the optical damage threshold of Bi2Te3 was around 100 MW/cm2, the other optical properties were also well characterized [35].

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Tilted view SEM images of the same fabricated InGaAsP MQW microdisk on sapphire (a) without and (b) with Bi2Te3 cluster.

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3. Results and discussions

3.1 Optical properties of InGaAsP microdisk

As showed in Fig. 2, the microdisk cavity was then optically pumped at room temperature using an 850-nm diode laser at normal incidence under CW condition. The pump beam was reflected by a dichroic mirror, and then focused on the devices through a 100× objective lens. The lasing light was collected with a multimode fiber collimator and the signal which can pass through dichroic mirror was introduced to an optical spectrum analyzer. The photoluminescence (PL) of the fabricated InGaAsP microdisk lasing cavities without Bi2Te3 was characterized under optical pumping. The InGaAsP layer contained four quantum wells, which was designed to support gain from 1500 nm to 1650nm in the near-infrared optical communication wavelength regime. As depicted in Fig. 3(a), the dominant resonances emerged at approximately 1586 nm under the current diameter, which the lasing resonance was attributed to TE1.48 mode and similarly with previous study [36]. The wavelength difference between the simulations and measurements, which was less than 1%, was attributed to fabrication imperfections. With a 7.7 mW normal incident excitation under CW conditions, a lasing peak with a Q value of 15500 was observed by estimating the ratio of the lasing wavelength ($\lambda $) to the linewidth ($\Delta \lambda $). To simulate the optical modes of this microdisk cavity, a three-dimensional finite-element method was applied for the microdisk cavity. The simulated model was consisted of an InGaAsP microdisk laid on sapphire substrate and covered by air. We set the corresponding refractive indices of the materials as ${n_{InGaAsP}} = 3.4$, ${n_{sapphire}} = 1.7$, ${n_{air}} = 1.0$. Figures 3(b) and 3(c) present the simulated $|E |$ mode profile of the TE1,48 lasing mode [(b) top view and (c) cross-sectional view]. The results reflect the behavior of the first-order WGM lasing mode in the microdisk cavity.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Experimental scheme of optical pumping and coupling.

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 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. (a) Lasing resonance of the InGaAsP MQW microdisk without Bi2Te3 coupling at 1586.4 nm under 7.7 mW CW operation at room temperature. (b) Top view and (c) cross-sectional view of the simulated normalized electric field profile of the TE1,48 WGM resonance. The intensity color scales in (b) and (c) are identical.

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3.2 Optical properties of InGaAsP microdisk with Bi2Te3

To characterize the SA effects between WGM lasing without and with Bi2Te3 clusters, the emission spectra of the identical microdisk was accordingly collected. The lasing operating conditions were controlled to be the same as that illustrated in Fig. 2, and the effects after coating the devices with Bi2Te3 cluster were be compared. Unlike the single peak illustrated in Fig. 3, the lasing spectra varied dramatically in this case. Figure 4(a) illustrated the background-removed lasing spectra of the identical 10-µm microdisk but with Bi2Te3 cluster on top. The top part of Fig. 4(a) included the simulated mode profiles of three adjacent TE-polarized first-order WGMs which are labeled with TE1,47, TE1,48 and TE1,49. By comparing the calculated WGM wavelengths from simulation and the lasing spectra, we can conclude the main peak groups was corresponding to the WGMs of the microdisk cavity. By benefit of SA from Bi2Te3 cluster, the modes of TE1.47 and TE1.49 were consequently emerged. Typically, degenerate splitting is inevitable for any WGM for a high-Q cavity due to either the clockwise or counterclockwise waveguide dispersion [37,38]. Here, the original WGM split into double peaks in the three emerging modes (denoted as MLx for the lower energy peak and MHx for the higher energy peak where x is the mode number of WGMs) caused a difference in the observed lasing output of the covered Bi2Te3 cluster microdisk. In the measured spectrum, the wavelength spacing between the higher energy peaks were approximately few tens nm, and between the lower and higher energy peak were approximately few nm. The variations in the PL peak intensities and linewidths under different pumping powers were also investigated. Figure 4(b) illustrated the lasing peak intensities the of TE1.47 (blue) and TE1.48 (red) modes under various conditions, while Fig. 4(c) exhibits the corresponding variations in the lasing peak linewidths for different pumping powers. The PL peak intensities increasing, the linewidths clearly dropped once the pumping power reached the threshold value of approximately 8 mW. This represents the nominal microdisk lasing behavior at this region. The emission wavelength of the PL peak exhibited a slight blue shift and the distance between the splitting peaks continuously decreased as the pumping power increased. These power dependent wavelength shifting phenomena arose from the same thermal problems as the pumping was increased, the lasing peak intensities decreased after pumping power exceeded 13 mW. In previous works, both low-threshold WGM lasing and degenerate splitting have been reported and studied [3941]. It is well known that WGMs in microdisk cavities constitute a promising approach to provide light sources for various applications, such as optical communications [42]. The similar phenomenon about which multi-peak emission from microdisk covered by SAs is still less reported and discussed.

 figure: Fig. 4.

Fig. 4. (a) Lasing spectra depend on pumping power for identical InGaAsP MQW 10-µm microdisk coupling with Bi2Te3 cluster. (b) Lasing peak intensity and (c) Lasing peak linewidth variation of TE1.47 (blue) and TE1.48 (red) mode for pumping power.

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To analyze the nature of the emission peaks, we estimated their frequency using the emission spectrum shown in Fig. 4. For the WGM of the TEH1.49, TEH1.48, and TEH1.47, the emission frequencies were readily estimated to be 194.8, 190.2, and 185.7 THz, and the frequency spacing was approximately 4.6 THz. The frequency values of the TEL1.49, TEL1.48, and TEL1.47 modes were 193.7, 189.4, and 185.1 THz, and the frequency spacing was approximately 4.3 THz. Table 1 lists emission wavelength and frequency for all the adjunction modes. Given both the lasing characteristics and the equal spacing of the adjunction modes, the mode-locking phenomenon was considered to be achieved. The repetition rate was accordingly estimated over 4 THz.

Tables Icon

Table 1. Emission wavelengths of microdisk lasing without or with Bi2Te3.

To further confirm this observation, we calculated the refractive index from the frequency spacing. Typically, the mode spacing of a WGM is given by c/ (π D neff), where, c, D, and neff denote the velocity of light in a vacuum, diameter of the microdisk (=10 µm) and refractive index, respectively. The refractive index values of 2.099 and 2.221 for the TEH1.48 and TEL1.48 energy peaks were calculated (see Table 1) and agree quite well with the results of a related study [43]. These values can explained the nature of the mode-locking mechanism.

3.3 WGM mode-locked application

Despite of that hundreds of GHz or even higher repetition rate mode spacing comb have been realized through nonlinear processes, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the emission spectrum from an active medium disks exhibited a mode-locked like behavior due to the on-top saturable absorber [44,45]. The small differences in the frequency spacing between the high and low energies were attributed to the different waveguide dispersions caused by the inhomogeneous thickness distributions of the covered Bi2Te3 cluster. Moreover, this also indicated that the Bi2Te3 cluster played a key role in the operational dynamics, a better frequency spacing was expected to be achieved by uniform SA flake. That is, the evanescent electric field of the WGM from the microdisk was modulated by the Bi2Te3 cluster. Similar to a previous work that employed a mode-locked fiber laser and a D-shaped fiber covered with a TI-saturable absorber, this study reveals the mode-locking operation due to the pumping power [46].

Recently, WGMs have been demonstrated as a promising method to provide low-threshold coherent light sources. As TIs provided low saturation, this study achieved mode-locking operation with repetition rates of maybe more than THz on microdisk WGMs, see Fig. 5. Although the emission radiation of the demonstration was collected by the fibers, it is emphasized that low-threshold mode-locking microdisk lasers are feasible with TIs as SAs and with waveguide coupling [47]. In addition, the repetition rate can be adjusted by managing the dimensions of the disk. Moreover, the different thickness of the covered TI powders result in the variations of the waveguide dispersion under clockwise (CW) or counter clockwise (CCW), leading to degenerate splitting. Recently, dual-comb light sources have become a notable topic for applications as sensors due to the high speed measurement and broad band optical spectrum [48]. For which several approaches, such as micro-ring-based dual-comb device, have been reported [4749]. A more compact and cost-efficient light source are achieved by benefit of modulation from SAs, and research combine with dual-comb and SAs must be going on. As a result, a WGM-based dual-comb device with scaling repetition rate will be expectable and should be further developed.

 figure: Fig. 5.

Fig. 5. Scheme of degenerate breaking whispering gallery mode (WGM) passive mode-locking operation with TIs.

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4. Conclusion

In summary, on chip frequency comb has been realized a trend because of its wide range applications, such as metrology, sensing and so on. Broadband spectrum output, compactness in space and efficient conversion are main goal for shooting. To date, various nonlinear gain approaches, for example: micro-ring/toroidal resonator or super-continuum generation within nonlinear waveguide, have been proposed and demonstrated. Regarding to the alternative way through real gain, scaling repetition rate and on-chip methods are still less discussed. In this work, Bi2Te3 cluster based saturable absorber InGaAsP multiple quantum wells (MQWs) whispering gallery mode (WGM) locking is proposed and demonstrated for fulfilling the requirement of efficient on-chip broadband light source. By benefiting from the low threshold of WGM and ultrasensitive saturation intensity of bulk state within the topological insulators, low threshold multi-peaks lasing action with equal spectral spacing was realized. This could be attribute to mode-locking and the repetition rate as high as an estimated over 4 THz was accordingly achieved. Additionally, clear degenerate breaking was observed with a frequency shift of approximately 1 THz for each lasing mode. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked WGM. These also exhibit applications potential for dual-comb products.

Funding

Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (105-2112-M-001-011-MY3, 106-2112-M-110-006-MY3, 107-2113-M-110-003, 107-2811-M-110-508); Academia Sinica (Taiwan Analytical Technology Exploration (i-MATE) program).

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST) under Contract No. 106-2112-M-110-006-MY3, 107-2113-M-110-003, 107-2811-M-110-508, 105-2112-M-001-011-MY3 and Academia Sinica, Taiwan Analytical Technology Exploration (i-MATE) program.

Disclosures

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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47. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003). [CrossRef]  

48. Z. Chen, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Mid-infrared feed-forward dual-comb spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 116(9), 3454–3459 (2019). [CrossRef]  

49. Y. Jin, S. M. Cristescu, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Femtosecond optical parametric oscillators toward real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 65–74 (2015). [CrossRef]  

References

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  43. D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, J. H. Ruela, and J. Solis, “Correlation of the refractive index change at the surface and inside phosphate glass upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2665 (2012).
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  45. T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-Nonlinearity Optical Parametric Oscillation in an Ultrahigh-Q Toroid Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  46. J. Lee, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. Lee, “All-fiberized, passively Q-switched 1.06µm laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” J. Opt. 16(8), 085203 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  47. S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  48. Z. Chen, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Mid-infrared feed-forward dual-comb spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 116(9), 3454–3459 (2019).
    [Crossref]
  49. Y. Jin, S. M. Cristescu, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Femtosecond optical parametric oscillators toward real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 65–74 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2019 (5)

H. Long, Y. Shi, Q. Wen, and Y. H. Tsang, “Ultrafast laser pulse (115 fs) generation by using direct bandgap ultrasmall 2D GaTe quantum dots,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(20), 5937–5944 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Black-phosphorous-based pulsed lasers: 2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1970001 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11(6), 2577–2593 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, M. Chuang, J. Lan, Y. Lin, W. Sung, R. Fan, M. Wu, C. Lee, C. Chen, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Two-Photon Absorption Within Layered Bi2Te3 Topological Insulators And The Role of Nonlinear Transmittance Therein,” J. Mater. Chem. C 7(23), 7027–7034 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Chen, T. W. Hansch, and N. Picque, “Mid-infrared feed-forward dual-comb spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 116(9), 3454–3459 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (5)

Z. Yang, J. Huo, and X. Han, “Angular-rate sensing by mode splitting in a Whispering-gallery-mode optical microresonator,” Measurement 125, 78–83 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Q. Kang, A. Francois, N. Riesen, and T. M. Monro, “Mode-splitting for refractive index sensing in fluorescent whispering gallery mode microspheres with broken symmetry,” Sensors 18(9), 2987 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, W. Sung, X. Su, Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, C. Wu, G. He, Y. Lin, H. Liu, J. He, and C. Lee, “Ultralow saturation intensity topological insulator saturable absorber for gigahertz mode-locked solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1504110 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Qiao, S. Zhao, K. Yang, W. Song, W. Qiao, C. Wu, J. Zhao, G. Li, D. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “High-quality 2-µm Q-switched pulsed solid-state lasers using spin-coating-coreduction approach synthesized Bi2Te3 topological insulators,” Photonics Res. 6(4), 314–320 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (1)

Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. Zheng, S. Lu, J. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4(4), 045010 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (8)

Y. Jin, S. M. Cristescu, F. J. M. Harren, and J. Mandon, “Femtosecond optical parametric oscillators toward real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 119(1), 65–74 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Pfeifle, A. Coillet, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, P. Schindler, C. Weimann, W. Freude, I. V. Balakireva, L. Larger, C. Koos, and Y. Chembo, “Optimally Coherent Kerr Combs Generated with Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Ultrahigh Capacity Fiber Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 093902 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, Y. Sun, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, Z. You, J. Li, M. C. Chou, C. Lee, and C. Tu, “Ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response of large-size topological insulator and application in low-threshold bulk pulsed lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14856 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, F. Lou, R. Zhao, J. He, J. Li, X. Su, J. Niang, and K. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40(16), 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a newsaturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12823–12833 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Schuhmann, T. Hansch, K. Kirch, A. Knecht, F. Kottmann, F. Nez, R. Pohl, D. Taqqu, and A. Antognini, “Thin-disk laser pump schemes for large number of passes and moderate pump source quality,” Appl. Opt. 54(32), 9400–9408 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (1)

2012 (4)

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hajlaoui, E. Papalazarou, J. Mauchain, G. Lantz, N. Moisan, D. Boschetto, Z. Jiang, I. Miotkowski, Y. P. Chen, A. Taleb-Ibrahimi, L. Perfetti, and M. Marsi, “Ultrafast Surface Carrier Dynamics in the Topological Insulator Bi2Te3,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3532–3536 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Zheng, C. Zhao, S. Lu, Y. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, and S. Wen, “Microwave and optical saturable absorption in graphene,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23201–23214 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Puerto, J. Siegel, A. Ferrer, J. H. Ruela, and J. Solis, “Correlation of the refractive index change at the surface and inside phosphate glass upon femtosecond laser irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(10), 2665 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er–Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Li, K. Liu, N. Zong, B. Feng, J. Zhang, Q. Peng, D. Cui, and Z. Xu, “Compact 7.8-W 1-GHz-repetition-rate passively mode-locked TEM00 Nd:YVO4 laser under 880 nm diode direct-in-band pumping,” Opt. Commun. 284(19), 4619–4622 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Ku, Q. Chen, R. Zhang, and H. Sun, “Whispering-gallery-mode microdisk lasers produced by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2871–2873 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

J. Knittel, T. G. Mcrae, K. H. Lee, and W. P. Bowen, “Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 123704 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

M. Tien, A. Ohta, K, Yu, S. Neale, and M. Wu, “Heterogeneous integration of InGaAsP microdisk laser on a silicon platform using optofluidic assembly,” Appl. Phys. A 95(4), 967–972 (2009).
[Crossref]

I. Teraoka and S. Arnold, “Resonance shifts of counterpropagating whispering-gallery modes: degenerate perturbation theory and application to resonator sensors with axial symmetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(7), 1321–1329 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Mahler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, C. Walther, J. Faist, B. Witzigmann, H. E. Beere, and D. Ritchie, “Vertically emitting microdisk lasers,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 46–49 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2004 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Kerr-Nonlinearity Optical Parametric Oscillation in an Ultrahigh-Q Toroid Microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(8), 083904 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

S. J. Choi, K. Djordjev, S. J. Choi, and P. D. Dapkus, “Microdisk lasers vertically coupled to output waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1330–1332 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and L. Maleki, “Active mode locking with whispering-gallery modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(11), 2292–2296 (2003).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. F. Service, “High-Powered Short-Pulse X-ray Lasers: Coming Soon to a Tabletop Near You?” Science 298(5597), 1357 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quantum. Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. F. J. Levi, “Microdisk lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 37(4-6), 1297–1302 (1994).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22 GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(16), 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Sobon, K. Krzempek, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, and M. Nikodem, “10 GHz passive harmonic mode-locking in Er–Yb double-clad fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 284(18), 4203–4206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Antognini, A.

Arnold, S.

Astratov, V. N.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quantum. Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Balakireva, I. V.

J. Pfeifle, A. Coillet, R. Henriet, K. Saleh, P. Schindler, C. Weimann, W. Freude, I. V. Balakireva, L. Larger, C. Koos, and Y. Chembo, “Optimally Coherent Kerr Combs Generated with Crystalline Whispering Gallery Mode Resonators for Ultrahigh Capacity Fiber Communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(9), 093902 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

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M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Black-phosphorous-based pulsed lasers: 2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1970001 (2019).
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Zhao, S.

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Y. Wang, W. Sung, X. Su, Y. Zhao, B. Zhang, C. Wu, G. He, Y. Lin, H. Liu, J. He, and C. Lee, “Ultralow saturation intensity topological insulator saturable absorber for gigahertz mode-locked solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photonics J. 10(5), 1504110 (2018).
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M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “Black-phosphorous-based pulsed lasers: 2D black phosphorus saturable absorbers for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1970001 (2019).
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Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 3(3), A79 (2015).
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J. He, L. Tao, H. Zhang, B. Zhou, and J. Li, “Emerging 2D materials beyond graphene for ultrashort pulse generation in fiber lasers,” Nanoscale 11(6), 2577–2593 (2019).
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J. Xu, Y. Sun, J. He, Y. Wang, Z. Zhu, Z. You, J. Li, M. C. Chou, C. Lee, and C. Tu, “Ultrasensitive nonlinear absorption response of large-size topological insulator and application in low-threshold bulk pulsed lasers,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 14856 (2015).
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2D Mater. (1)

Y. Song, Z. Liang, X. Jiang, Y. Chen, Z. Li, L. Lu, Y. Ge, K. Wang, J. Zheng, S. Lu, J. Ji, and H. Zhang, “Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability,” 2D Mater. 4(4), 045010 (2017).
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ACS Photonics (1)

H. Mu, Z. Wang, J. Yuan, S. Xiao, C. Chen, Y. Chen, Y. Chen, J. Song, Y. Wang, Y. Xue, H. Zhang, and Q. Bao, “Graphene-Bi2Te3 heterostructure as saturable absorber for short pulse generation,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 832–841 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

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IEEE J. Selec. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

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IEEE Photonics J. (1)

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Measurement (1)

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Nano Lett. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Tilted view SEM images of the same fabricated InGaAsP MQW microdisk on sapphire (a) without and (b) with Bi2Te3 cluster.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental scheme of optical pumping and coupling.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Lasing resonance of the InGaAsP MQW microdisk without Bi2Te3 coupling at 1586.4 nm under 7.7 mW CW operation at room temperature. (b) Top view and (c) cross-sectional view of the simulated normalized electric field profile of the TE1,48 WGM resonance. The intensity color scales in (b) and (c) are identical.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Lasing spectra depend on pumping power for identical InGaAsP MQW 10-µm microdisk coupling with Bi2Te3 cluster. (b) Lasing peak intensity and (c) Lasing peak linewidth variation of TE1.47 (blue) and TE1.48 (red) mode for pumping power.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Scheme of degenerate breaking whispering gallery mode (WGM) passive mode-locking operation with TIs.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Emission wavelengths of microdisk lasing without or with Bi2Te3.

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