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Optica Publishing Group

Chip-based squeezing at a telecom wavelength

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Abstract

We demonstrate a squeezing experiment exploiting the association of integrated optics and telecom technology as key features for compact, stable, and practical continuous variable quantum optics. In our setup, squeezed light is generated by single-pass spontaneous parametric down conversion on a lithium niobate photonic circuit and detected by a homodyne detector whose interferometric part is directly integrated on the same platform. The remaining parts of the experiment are implemented using commercial plug-and-play devices based on guided-wave technologies. We measure, for a CW pump power of 40 mW, a squeezing level of 2.00±0.05dB(anti-squeezing 2.80±0.05dB), thus confirming the validity of our approach and opening the way toward miniaturized and easy-to-handle continuous variable-based quantum systems.

© 2019 Chinese Laser Press

1. INTRODUCTION

Over the last years, single and multimode squeezed states [1] have played a crucial role in the development of quantum technologies such as quantum computation [2,3], communication [46], and sensing [7]. In this context, important experimental and theoretical tools for squeezing generation, manipulation, and analysis have been developed [8,9]. Moreover, it has been proved that squeezed states can be manipulated to generate highly nonclassical states, such as Schrödinger kittens [10] or cats [11] or hybrid entangled states featuring continuous-discrete variable properties [12,13].

So far, most of important squeezing demonstrations have been performed by exploiting bulk optics experiments, where squeezed states are usually generated via resonant systems, such as optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) [14,15], and detected thanks to free-space homodyne detections, for which careful spatial alignment and mode matching are required [16]. As a consequence, in view of practical applications, we have been assisting to the miniaturization of important building blocks of squeezing experiments. Compact and stable squeezing generation has been reported in single-pass waveguides [17,18] and, more recently, in OPO-like devices such as a silicon microring [19] or a waveguide cavity resonator on lithium niobate allowing to measure a squeezing of 2.9dB for a pump power of 23mW [20]. In parallel, other realizations have reported on-chip homodyne detectors exploiting integrated optics on different substrates [16,21,22]. Eventually, in the last months, a photonic platform for continuous variable quantum information has been demonstrated on lithium niobate [23].

Our work follows this emerging and very exciting research area. It addresses the realization of stable, compact, and telecom-compliant squeezing experiments by merging integrated optics on lithium niobate [24] and mature classical technologies. This association allows satisfying in a simple way the requirements of easy-to-use and scalable experiments in view of out-of-the-laboratory quantum communication in optical fibers [6,25]. The squeezing generation and the optical coupler for the homodyne detector are fully integrated on a single chip with no significant loss between these two stages and no spatial mode-matching concerns [16]. At the same time, with the only exception of homodyne photodiodes, all the other building blocks of our experiment are realized by means of off-the-shelf guided-wave telecom components, fully compatible with existing fiber networks and allowing fast and plug-and-play experiment reconfigurations [26]. More in details squeezed light is generated on-chip via efficient single-pass spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled waveguide. Squeezing is emitted in the telecom C-band of wavelengths to be compatible with low propagation losses in optical fibers. Its homodyne detection, exploiting on-chip optical mixing with the local oscillator (LO) beam, exhibits low losses, essentially due to Fresnel reflection at the chip end-facet and photodiode quantum efficiency. Thanks to this approach, we measure with the integrated homodyne interferometer a raw single-mode squeezing level of 2.00±0.05dB (3.00±0.05dB corrected by avoidable losses), with a continuous wave (CW) pump power of 40 mW. This value validates our approach and represents, to our knowledge, the best squeezing level obtained in miniaturized systems in single-pass CW pumping regime [17,20,23].

2. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND PHOTONIC CHIP

The experimental setup is sketched in Fig. 1. It associates an injection system, exploiting easy-to-assemble guided-wave components, with our home-made lithium-niobate chip.

 figure: Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Experimental setup. A fiber coupled CW telecom laser at 1560.44 nm is amplified (EDFA) and split into two by means of a 65:35 fiber beam splitter (f-BS). The less intense output (upper arm) serves as local oscillator (LO) while the brighter one (lower arm) is frequency doubled via SHG in a PPLN/RW and used to pump an on-chip squeezing generation stage (SPDC). The power of the beam at 780.22 nm is controlled with an in-line fibered attenuator (Pwr Ctrl) and its polarization is adjusted by means of a fiber polarization controller. At the output of the SPDC stage, squeezed light at 1560.44 nm is optically mixed with the LO beam inside the same chip in an integrated directional coupler realizing the interferometric part of the homodyne detector. At the chip output, after passing through a bulk lens followed by an optical filter suppressing residual pump at 780.22 nm, light is sent to two InGaAs photodiodes (PDs). The LO phase is scanned thanks to a home-made fiber-stretcher (ϕLO).

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The setup relies on a master, fiber-coupled laser generating a CW optical beam at 1560.44 nm and amplified up to 0.95 W with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). At the output of the EDFA, the single-mode laser light is split by a high-power 65:35 fiber coupler (f-BS). The less intense output is directed to a home-made fiber stretcher allowing to scan its phase, to be subsequently used as local oscillator for the homodyne interferometer. The brighter output is frequency doubled to 780.22 nm via second-harmonic generation (SHG) and used to pump the squeezer. The single-pass SHG is realized in a commercial periodically poled lithium-niobate ridge waveguide (PPLN/RW [27]) where both input and output ports are fiber-coupled. We note that the ridge output coupling is optimized by the manufacturer to maximize the collection only at 780.22 nm. Residual light at 1560.44 nm at the ridge output is suppressed during its propagation in visible light single-mode fibers and by a fiber-wavelength demultiplexer (WDM 980/1550, not represented in Fig. 1).

The LO at 1560.44 nm and the pump at 780.22 nm are sent to a fiber array and butt-coupled to the home-made photonic chip. A fiber polarization controller (PC) on each arm is introduced to properly adjust the polarization. Typical fiber-to-input guide couplings are of 0.60. This value can be increased up to 0.92 by inserting taper structures on the photonic chip input [28]. The entire optical setup upstream from the chip is made using commercial plug-and-play components, exploiting telecom and nonlinear optics technologies and guaranteeing a quick operation with no spatial-alignment procedure [16,26].

A schematic of the photonic circuit is presented in Fig. 2. The 5 cm-long chip integrates on a single congruent lithium niobate substrate, the two key components for squeezing experiments, namely the squeezing generation stage and the optical coupler required for the interferometric part of the homodyne detection. Accordingly, it has two input ports, one for the squeezer pump and the other for the homodyne LO, and two output ports that are directly connected to the bulk homodyne photodiodes. The separation between ports on the same facet is 127 μm, i.e., compatible with standard fiber-array coupling systems. The waveguide structures are 6 μm wide, and they are fabricated using soft-proton exchange (SPE) following the technique discussed in Ref. [29]. Propagation losses have been measured to be 0.04dB/cm at 1560 nm and 1dB/cm at 780 nm.

 figure: Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Schematic of our photonic chip on lithium niobate. The chip includes an SPDC stage, consisting in a periodically poled waveguide (3 cm long with poling period Λ=16.3μm) for squeezing generation at 1560.44 nm, and an integrated directional coupler realizing the interferometric part of the homodyne squeezing detection. The whole chip length is 5 cm. All waveguides are obtained by soft proton exchange [29] and have a width of 6 μm. The 127 μm spacing between the input (output) waveguides is compatible with of-the-shelf fiber-arrays. The homodyne photodiodes are outside the chip and are bulk commercial components.

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Lithium niobate is particularly suitable to develop integrated squeezers and photonic circuits, featuring high nonlinearity and the possibility of implementing quasiphase-matching to engineer the nonlinear optical response [24]. Our on-chip squeezer is a straight periodically poled waveguide, 3 cm long and designed to have, when pumped at 780.22 nm, a type-0 frequency degenerate SPDC centered at 1560.44 nm. Periodic poling pattern is created by standard electric-field assisted technique with a period Λ=16.3μm [24]. The quasiphase-matching temperature for reaching the desired interaction is 104°C. Such a high temperature has been chosen to mitigate light-induced local modifications of the refractive index in lithium niobate waveguides. Photorefractive effects are, indeed, particularly evident for optical signals at shorter wavelengths and, at high powers, can induce hopping between different spatial modes [30]. At the chosen working temperature, no mode-hopping is observed for red powers up to 40 mW. Moreover, by exploiting on-chip residual cavity effects and evaluating the resonance positions as functions of the input red power, refractive index variations have been measured to be 4×105. These very small values are consistent with other reported results [31]. The quality of the SPDC stage has been assessed by means of the single-photon counting technique. Typical values for our conversion efficiencies are 105 photon pairs/(mW·GHz·s) with an FWHM for the spectral emission of 70 nm [32]. We recall that, due to the absence of an optical resonator, this value corresponds directly to the squeezing bandwidth [17,33].

The on-chip homodyne interferometer is based on a balanced integrated directional coupler (IDC), exploiting the evanescent tail coupling [34]. It consists of two waveguides running close to each other over a geometrical length of 5.5mm and with a center-to-center separation of 11 μm. The two IDC inputs are fed with the squeezer output (directly on-chip) and with the local oscillator. Its measured splitting ratio is 5050 at the SPDC central emission wavelength (i.e., at the LO wavelength). To achieve such a good balancing, the ideal coupling length and BS design have been numerically computed based on our waveguides’ typical measured properties. Moreover, to comply with fabrication uncertainties, we have realized on the same sample 17 copies of our photonic circuit, corresponding each to a slightly different IDC length, numerically calculated on the basis of our usual parameter fluctuations. The optimal component has been selected among these copies.

The IDC outputs are directed outside the chip and sent to two bulk photodiodes as required for the homodyne detection. The chip is diced using a semiconductor saw and polished at 0° through chemical mechanical polishing. Due to the absence of anti-reflection coating, light experiences, at its output, a sharp refractive index change at the lithium niobate-air interface and is transmitted with an efficiency ηF=1RFresnel, where RFresnel=(nairnchipnair+nchip)2. At telecom wavelength, ηF0.86 [35]. Thanks to a bulk C-coated lens with 11 mm focal length, the two beams coming out of the photonic circuit are directly imaged on two InGaAs photodiodes (PDs) exhibiting a quantum efficiency ηPD0.88 at 1560 nm. By doing so, a nearly perfect chip-to-photodiode coupling is obtained. Residual transmitted light at 780.22 nm is rejected of more than 40dB with a bulk optical filter, exhibiting a transmission ηf=0.99 at 1560 nm. We stress that the lens, the filter, and the homodyne photodiodes are the only bulk optics components in our setup. The difference of the photocurrents from the two photodiodes is amplified by a home-made low-noise transimpedance amplifier with bandwidth of 5MHz. Noise power is directly measured with an electronic spectrum analyzer set at zero-span centered at 2 MHz. For 0.5 mW LO power on each photodiode, we obtain an electronic signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 12.8 dB. Residual electronic noise effect can be taken into account by introducing an additional loss, through the efficiency ηe=(SNR1)/SNR0.95 [36].

3. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Figure 3 shows a typical squeezing curve obtained by scanning the phase of the local oscillator over time. We measure a raw squeezing value of 2.00±0.05dB, with an anti-squeezing of 2.80±0.05dB when 40 mW pump light is coupled in the PPLN arm of the chip. The measured squeezed value is affected by losses at the photonic circuit output, such as Fresnel reflection and detectors’ nonunit efficiencies as well as electronic noise. However, we underline that these contributions are not due to unavoidable limitations of our chip and can be easily circumvented by means of anti-reflection coating on the chip output facet, leading to ηF1, and by replacing photodiodes and electronics with more performant ones (ηPD·ηe0.99) [14]. By correcting our measured squeezing for the overall measurement efficiency, η=ηF·ηf·ηPD·ηe=0.71, we can infer the squeezing at the output of the photonic circuit to be 3.2dB (anti-squeezing of 3.6dB), which is, to our knowledge, the best reported value for CW-pumped squeezing in waveguides without an optical resonator [17,20,23]. We note that the product of squeezing and anti-squeezing net variances is close to the one expected for minimum uncertainty states, thus showing the absence of unwanted excess noise on antisqueezed quadratures. This value provides evidence of the chip quality in terms of both squeezing generation and losses in the interferometric part of the homodyne detector. We underline that our reported squeezing level is compatible with applications in quantum communication protocols like continuous variable entanglement distribution and teleportation [2] as well as with the heralded generation of Schrödinger cat-like states [10] fully compatible with existing quantum networks and with their use for hybrid entangled states [12,13]. At the same time, we note that the optical chip reported here represents a first important building block for more complex optical circuits able to embrace nonlinear and linear operation stages, enabling new perspectives towards quantum enhanced optical processors [2,23]. Eventually, we stress that the squeezing levels can be further improved by increasing the SPDC pump powers. In these regimes, to avoid detrimental photo-refraction in the waveguides, a Mg:O-doped lithium niobate substrate should be used for the photonic chip. Based on our previous results for this kind of support [26], we expect for a Mg:O doped SPE waveguide with the same characteristics as the one reported in this paper, a maximum squeezing from 10 to 9dB for an SPDC pump power 500mW.

 figure: Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Normalized noise variances at 2 MHz obtained for a coupled pump power of 40 mW as a function of the LO phase (proportional to the time) and with a sweep time of 1 s. The electrical spectrum analyzer resolution and the video bandwidths are 100 kHz to 30 Hz, respectively.

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In conclusion, we have demonstrated a compact and easy-to-handle experiment relying on integrated optics on lithium niobate and off-the-shelf telecom and nonlinear components. Our photonic circuit integrates on-chip the squeezing generation and the homodyne interferometer. The squeezed light generated at telecom wavelength exhibits a raw noise compression of 2.00±0.05dB for a pump power of 40 mW with an anti-squeezing of 2.80±0.05dB. The whole remaining setup employs plug-and-play components requiring no alignment procedures for spatial mode matching. These advantages guarantee an extreme reliability and make our approach a valuable candidate for real-world applications based on continuous variable quantum systems.

Funding

European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (Optimal); Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) (ANR-14-CE32-0019, ANR-15-IDEX-01, ANR-17-CE30-0006-01, PN-II-ID-JRPRO-FR-2014-0013).

Acknowledgment

A. Z. acknowledges support from the CNR Short-Term Mobility Program and the Université Nice Sophia Antipolis for invited professor fellowship. The authors thank H. Tronche for technical support.

REFERENCES

1. A. I. Lvovsky, Squeezed Light, Photonics Volume 1: Fundamentals of Photonics and Physics, D. Andrews, ed. (Wiley, 2015), pp. 121–163.

2. U. L. Andersen, G. Leuchs, and C. Silberhorn, “Continuous-variable quantum information processing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 337–354 (2010). [CrossRef]  

3. N. C. Menicucci, S. T. Flammia, H. Zaidi, and O. Pfister, “Ultracompact generation of continuous-variable cluster states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 010302(R) (2007). [CrossRef]  

4. T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013). [CrossRef]  

5. C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012). [CrossRef]  

6. M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018). [CrossRef]  

7. R. Schnabel, “Squeezed states of light and their applications in laser interferometers,” Phys. Rep. 684, 1–51 (2017). [CrossRef]  

8. U. L. Andersen, T. Gehring, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “30 years of squeezed light generation,” Phys. Scr. 91, 053001 (2016). [CrossRef]  

9. A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299–332 (2009). [CrossRef]  

10. A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006). [CrossRef]  

11. D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017). [CrossRef]  

12. A. E. Ulanov, D. Sychev, A. A. Pushkina, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum teleportation between discrete and continuous encodings of an optical qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 160501 (2017). [CrossRef]  

13. O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570–574 (2014). [CrossRef]  

14. M. Mehmet, S. Ast, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed light at 1550 nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3 dB,” Opt. Express 19, 25763–25772 (2011). [CrossRef]  

15. J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2013). [CrossRef]  

16. G. Masada, K. Miyata, A. Politi, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Furusawa, “Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 9, 316–319 (2015). [CrossRef]  

17. K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007). [CrossRef]  

18. Y. Eto, T. Tajima, Y. Zhang, and T. Hirano, “Observation of quadrature squeezing in a χ(2) nonlinear waveguide using a temporally shaped local oscillator pulse,” Opt. Express 16, 10650–10657 (2008). [CrossRef]  

19. A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 044005 (2015). [CrossRef]  

20. M. Stefszky, R. Ricken, C. Eigner, V. Quiring, H. Herrmann, and C. Silberhorn, “Waveguide cavity resonator as a source of optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044026 (2017). [CrossRef]  

21. C. Porto, D. Rusca, S. Cialdi, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, D. Tamascelli, S. Olivares, and M. G. A. Paris, “Detection of squeezed light with glass-integrated technology embedded into a homodyne detector setup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 1596–1602 (2018). [CrossRef]  

22. F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018). [CrossRef]  

23. F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018). [CrossRef]  

24. O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016). [CrossRef]  

25. F. Y. Hou, L. Yu, X. J. Jiaa, Y. H. Zheng, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental generation of optical non-classical states of light with 1.34 μm wavelength,” Eur. Phys. J. D 62, 433–437 (2011). [CrossRef]  

26. F. Kaiser, B. Fedrici, A. Zavatta, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks,” Optica 3, 362–365 (2016). [CrossRef]  

27. T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1206–1213 (2010). [CrossRef]  

28. D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, “Soft-proton-exchange tapers for low insertion-loss LiNbO3 devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588–1593 (2007). [CrossRef]  

29. L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000). [CrossRef]  

30. A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, D. H. Auston, and T. J. Negran, “Excited state polarization, bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive effect in electrically polarized media,” J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915–943 (1975). [CrossRef]  

31. A. Hellwig, “Nonlinear optical and photorefractive properties of periodically poled channel waveguides in lithium niobate,” Ph.D. thesis (Universitat Paderborn, 2011).

32. L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015). [CrossRef]  

33. M. Pysher, R. Bloomer, C. M. Kaleva, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and O. Pfister, “Broadband amplitude squeezing in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 34, 256–258 (2009). [CrossRef]  

34. D. Barral, M. G. Thompson, and J. Linares, “Detection of two-mode spatial quantum states of light by electro-optic integrated directional couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 1165–1173 (2015). [CrossRef]  

35. D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5 mol.% magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3319–3322 (1997). [CrossRef]  

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References

  • View by:

  1. A. I. Lvovsky, Squeezed Light, Photonics Volume 1: Fundamentals of Photonics and Physics, D. Andrews, ed. (Wiley, 2015), pp. 121–163.
  2. U. L. Andersen, G. Leuchs, and C. Silberhorn, “Continuous-variable quantum information processing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 337–354 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. C. Menicucci, S. T. Flammia, H. Zaidi, and O. Pfister, “Ultracompact generation of continuous-variable cluster states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 010302(R) (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  6. M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Schnabel, “Squeezed states of light and their applications in laser interferometers,” Phys. Rep. 684, 1–51 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  8. U. L. Andersen, T. Gehring, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “30 years of squeezed light generation,” Phys. Scr. 91, 053001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299–332 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  12. A. E. Ulanov, D. Sychev, A. A. Pushkina, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum teleportation between discrete and continuous encodings of an optical qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 160501 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  13. O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570–574 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Mehmet, S. Ast, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed light at 1550  nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3  dB,” Opt. Express 19, 25763–25772 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Masada, K. Miyata, A. Politi, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Furusawa, “Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 9, 316–319 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. Eto, T. Tajima, Y. Zhang, and T. Hirano, “Observation of quadrature squeezing in a χ(2) nonlinear waveguide using a temporally shaped local oscillator pulse,” Opt. Express 16, 10650–10657 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 044005 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Stefszky, R. Ricken, C. Eigner, V. Quiring, H. Herrmann, and C. Silberhorn, “Waveguide cavity resonator as a source of optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044026 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Porto, D. Rusca, S. Cialdi, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, D. Tamascelli, S. Olivares, and M. G. A. Paris, “Detection of squeezed light with glass-integrated technology embedded into a homodyne detector setup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 1596–1602 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  22. F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  23. F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. F. Y. Hou, L. Yu, X. J. Jiaa, Y. H. Zheng, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental generation of optical non-classical states of light with 1.34  μm wavelength,” Eur. Phys. J. D 62, 433–437 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. F. Kaiser, B. Fedrici, A. Zavatta, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks,” Optica 3, 362–365 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1206–1213 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  28. D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, “Soft-proton-exchange tapers for low insertion-loss LiNbO3 devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588–1593 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  29. L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, D. H. Auston, and T. J. Negran, “Excited state polarization, bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive effect in electrically polarized media,” J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915–943 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. Hellwig, “Nonlinear optical and photorefractive properties of periodically poled channel waveguides in lithium niobate,” Ph.D. thesis (Universitat Paderborn, 2011).
  32. L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Pysher, R. Bloomer, C. M. Kaleva, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and O. Pfister, “Broadband amplitude squeezing in a periodically poled KTiOPO4 waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 34, 256–258 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  34. D. Barral, M. G. Thompson, and J. Linares, “Detection of two-mode spatial quantum states of light by electro-optic integrated directional couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 1165–1173 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  35. D. E. Zelmon, D. L. Small, and D. Jundt, “Infrared corrected Sellmeier coefficients for congruently grown lithium niobate and 5  mol.% magnesium oxide-doped lithium niobate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3319–3322 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. Appel, D. Hoffman, E. Figueroa, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Electronic noise in optical homodyne tomography,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 035802 (2007).
    [Crossref]

2018 (4)

M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Porto, D. Rusca, S. Cialdi, A. Crespi, R. Osellame, D. Tamascelli, S. Olivares, and M. G. A. Paris, “Detection of squeezed light with glass-integrated technology embedded into a homodyne detector setup,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 35, 1596–1602 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

M. Stefszky, R. Ricken, C. Eigner, V. Quiring, H. Herrmann, and C. Silberhorn, “Waveguide cavity resonator as a source of optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044026 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. Schnabel, “Squeezed states of light and their applications in laser interferometers,” Phys. Rep. 684, 1–51 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. E. Ulanov, D. Sychev, A. A. Pushkina, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum teleportation between discrete and continuous encodings of an optical qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 160501 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

U. L. Andersen, T. Gehring, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “30 years of squeezed light generation,” Phys. Scr. 91, 053001 (2016).
[Crossref]

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Kaiser, B. Fedrici, A. Zavatta, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks,” Optica 3, 362–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 044005 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Barral, M. G. Thompson, and J. Linares, “Detection of two-mode spatial quantum states of light by electro-optic integrated directional couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 32, 1165–1173 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Masada, K. Miyata, A. Politi, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Furusawa, “Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 9, 316–319 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

M. Mehmet, S. Ast, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed light at 1550  nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3  dB,” Opt. Express 19, 25763–25772 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Hou, L. Yu, X. J. Jiaa, Y. H. Zheng, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental generation of optical non-classical states of light with 1.34  μm wavelength,” Eur. Phys. J. D 62, 433–437 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1206–1213 (2010).
[Crossref]

U. L. Andersen, G. Leuchs, and C. Silberhorn, “Continuous-variable quantum information processing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 337–354 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (4)

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. C. Menicucci, S. T. Flammia, H. Zaidi, and O. Pfister, “Ultracompact generation of continuous-variable cluster states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 010302(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Appel, D. Hoffman, E. Figueroa, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Electronic noise in optical homodyne tomography,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 035802 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, “Soft-proton-exchange tapers for low insertion-loss LiNbO3 devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588–1593 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1975 (1)

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, D. H. Auston, and T. J. Negran, “Excited state polarization, bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive effect in electrically polarized media,” J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915–943 (1975).
[Crossref]

Alibart, O.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015).
[Crossref]

Andersen, U. L.

U. L. Andersen, T. Gehring, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “30 years of squeezed light generation,” Phys. Scr. 91, 053001 (2016).
[Crossref]

U. L. Andersen, G. Leuchs, and C. Silberhorn, “Continuous-variable quantum information processing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 337–354 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aoki, T.

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appel, J.

J. Appel, D. Hoffman, E. Figueroa, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Electronic noise in optical homodyne tomography,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 035802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Aschieri, P.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, “Soft-proton-exchange tapers for low insertion-loss LiNbO3 devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588–1593 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

Asobe, M.

T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1206–1213 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ast, S.

Auston, D. H.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, D. H. Auston, and T. J. Negran, “Excited state polarization, bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive effect in electrically polarized media,” J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915–943 (1975).
[Crossref]

Baldi, P.

D. Castaldini, P. Bassi, S. Tascu, P. Aschieri, M. P. De Micheli, and P. Baldi, “Soft-proton-exchange tapers for low insertion-loss LiNbO3 devices,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1588–1593 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bamford, D. J.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

Barral, D.

Bassi, P.

Battle, P.

Bloomer, R.

Bonneau, D.

F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Castaldini, D.

Cerf, N. J.

C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chanvillard, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
[Crossref]

Cialdi, S.

Crespi, A.

Cui, L.

F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
[Crossref]

D’Auria, V.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Kaiser, B. Fedrici, A. Zavatta, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks,” Optica 3, 362–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. A. Ngah, O. Alibart, L. Labonté, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “Ultra-fast heralded single photon source based on telecom technology,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, L1–L5 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Araujo, R. M.

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

de Micheli, M.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

De Micheli, M. P.

Doutre, F.

O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Duhme, J.

T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dutt, A.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 044005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Eberle, T.

T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Mehmet, S. Ast, T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, H. Vahlbruch, and R. Schnabel, “Squeezed light at 1550  nm with a quantum noise reduction of 12.3  dB,” Opt. Express 19, 25763–25772 (2011).
[Crossref]

Eigner, C.

M. Stefszky, R. Ricken, C. Eigner, V. Quiring, H. Herrmann, and C. Silberhorn, “Waveguide cavity resonator as a source of optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044026 (2017).
[Crossref]

Eto, Y.

Fabre, C.

O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, I. A.

D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. E. Ulanov, D. Sychev, A. A. Pushkina, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum teleportation between discrete and continuous encodings of an optical qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 160501 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fedrici, B.

Ferranti, G.

F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
[Crossref]

Figueroa, E.

J. Appel, D. Hoffman, E. Figueroa, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Electronic noise in optical homodyne tomography,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 035802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Flammia, S. T.

N. C. Menicucci, S. T. Flammia, H. Zaidi, and O. Pfister, “Ultracompact generation of continuous-variable cluster states,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 010302(R) (2007).
[Crossref]

Franz, T.

T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Furrer, F.

T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Furusawa, A.

G. Masada, K. Miyata, A. Politi, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Furusawa, “Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 9, 316–319 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Yoshino, T. Aoki, and A. Furusawa, “Generation of continuous-wave broadband entangled beams using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gaeta, A. L.

A. Dutt, K. Luke, S. Manipatruni, A. L. Gaeta, P. Nussenzveig, and M. Lipson, “On-chip optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 3, 044005 (2015).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Patron, R.

C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gehring, T.

U. L. Andersen, T. Gehring, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “30 years of squeezed light generation,” Phys. Scr. 91, 053001 (2016).
[Crossref]

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, D. H. Auston, and T. J. Negran, “Excited state polarization, bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive effect in electrically polarized media,” J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915–943 (1975).
[Crossref]

Grangier, P.

A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
[Crossref]

Handchen, V.

T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, T.

G. Masada, K. Miyata, A. Politi, T. Hashimoto, J. L. O’Brien, and A. Furusawa, “Continuous-variable entanglement on a chip,” Nat. Photonics 9, 316–319 (2015).
[Crossref]

Haylock, B.

F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
[Crossref]

Hellwig, A.

A. Hellwig, “Nonlinear optical and photorefractive properties of periodically poled channel waveguides in lithium niobate,” Ph.D. thesis (Universitat Paderborn, 2011).

Herrmann, H.

M. Stefszky, R. Ricken, C. Eigner, V. Quiring, H. Herrmann, and C. Silberhorn, “Waveguide cavity resonator as a source of optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044026 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hirano, T.

Hoffman, D.

J. Appel, D. Hoffman, E. Figueroa, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Electronic noise in optical homodyne tomography,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 035802 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hou, F. Y.

F. Y. Hou, L. Yu, X. J. Jiaa, Y. H. Zheng, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental generation of optical non-classical states of light with 1.34  μm wavelength,” Eur. Phys. J. D 62, 433–437 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

O. Morin, K. Huang, J. Liu, H. Le Jeannic, C. Fabre, and J. Laurat, “Remote creation of hybrid entanglement between particle-like and wave-like optical qubits,” Nat. Photonics 8, 570–574 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

L. Chanvillard, P. Aschieri, P. Baldi, D. B. Ostrowsky, M. de Micheli, L. Huang, and D. J. Bamford, “Soft proton exchange on periodically poled LiNbO3: a simple waveguide fabrication process for highly efficient nonlinear interactions,” App. Phys. Lett. 76, 1089–1091 (2000).
[Crossref]

Huntington, E. H.

F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
[Crossref]

Huo, M.

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M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
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M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
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M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
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C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012).
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A. I. Lvovsky and M. G. Raymer, “Continuous-variable optical quantum-state tomography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 299–332 (2009).
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D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
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Roslund, J.

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F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
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M. Stefszky, R. Ricken, C. Eigner, V. Quiring, H. Herrmann, and C. Silberhorn, “Waveguide cavity resonator as a source of optical squeezing,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7, 044026 (2017).
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U. L. Andersen, G. Leuchs, and C. Silberhorn, “Continuous-variable quantum information processing,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4, 337–354 (2010).
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F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
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Su, X.

M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
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A. E. Ulanov, D. Sychev, A. A. Pushkina, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum teleportation between discrete and continuous encodings of an optical qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 160501 (2017).
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D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
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Tamascelli, D.

Tanzilli, S.

F. Kaiser, B. Fedrici, A. Zavatta, V. D’Auria, and S. Tanzilli, “A fully guided-wave squeezing experiment for fiber quantum networks,” Optica 3, 362–365 (2016).
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O. Alibart, V. D’Auria, M. D. Micheli, F. Doutre, F. Kaiser, L. Labonté, T. Lunghi, E. Picholle, and S. Tanzilli, “Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides,” J. Opt. 18, 104001 (2016).
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F. Raffaelli, G. Ferranti, D. H. Mahler, P. Sibson, J. E. Kennard, A. Santamato, G. Sinclair, D. Bonneau, M. G. Thompson, and J. C. F. Matthews, “A homodyne detector integrated onto a photonic chip for measuring quantum states and generating random numbers,” Quantum Sci. Technol. 3, 025003 (2018).
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J. Roslund, R. M. de Araujo, S. Jiang, C. Fabre, and N. Treps, “Wavelength-multiplexed quantum networks with ultrafast frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8, 109–112 (2013).
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A. Ourjoumtsev, R. Tualle-Brouri, J. Laurat, and P. Grangier, “Generating optical Schrödinger kittens for quantum information processing,” Science 312, 83–86 (2006).
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D. V. Sychev, A. E. Ulanov, A. A. Pushkina, M. W. Richards, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Enlargement of optical Schrödinger’s cat states,” Nat. Photonics 11, 379–382 (2017).
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A. E. Ulanov, D. Sychev, A. A. Pushkina, I. A. Fedorov, and A. I. Lvovsky, “Quantum teleportation between discrete and continuous encodings of an optical qubit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 160501 (2017).
[Crossref]

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T. Umeki, O. Tadanaga, and M. Asobe, “Highly efficient wavelength converter using direct-bonded PPZnLN ridge waveguide,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 1206–1213 (2010).
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Viet Dao, D.

F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
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F. Lenzini, J. Janousek, O. Thearle, M. Villa, B. Haylock, S. Kasture, L. Cui, H.-P. Phan, D. Viet Dao, H. Yonezawa, P. K. Lam, E. H. Huntington, and M. Lobino, “Integrated photonic platform for quantum information with continuous variables,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaat9331 (2018).
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A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, D. H. Auston, and T. J. Negran, “Excited state polarization, bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive effect in electrically polarized media,” J. Electron. Mater. 4, 915–943 (1975).
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C. Weedbrook, S. Pirandola, R. Garcia-Patron, N. J. Cerf, T. C. Ralph, J. H. Shapiro, and S. Lloyd, “Gaussian quantum information,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 621–669 (2012).
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T. Eberle, V. Handchen, J. Duhme, T. Franz, F. Furrer, R. Schnabel, and R. F. Werner, “Gaussian entanglement for quantum key distribution from a single-mode squeezing source,” New J. Phys. 15, 053049 (2013).
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Xie, C.

M. Huo, J. Qin, J. Cheng, Z. Yan, Z. Qin, X. Su, X. Jia, C. Xie, and K. Peng, “Deterministic quantum teleportation through fiber channels,” Sci. Adv. 4, eaas9401 (2018).
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F. Y. Hou, L. Yu, X. J. Jiaa, Y. H. Zheng, C. D. Xie, and K. C. Peng, “Experimental generation of optical non-classical states of light with 1.34  μm wavelength,” Eur. Phys. J. D 62, 433–437 (2011).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental setup. A fiber coupled CW telecom laser at 1560.44 nm is amplified (EDFA) and split into two by means of a 65:35 fiber beam splitter (f-BS). The less intense output (upper arm) serves as local oscillator (LO) while the brighter one (lower arm) is frequency doubled via SHG in a PPLN/RW and used to pump an on-chip squeezing generation stage (SPDC). The power of the beam at 780.22 nm is controlled with an in-line fibered attenuator (Pwr Ctrl) and its polarization is adjusted by means of a fiber polarization controller. At the output of the SPDC stage, squeezed light at 1560.44 nm is optically mixed with the LO beam inside the same chip in an integrated directional coupler realizing the interferometric part of the homodyne detector. At the chip output, after passing through a bulk lens followed by an optical filter suppressing residual pump at 780.22 nm, light is sent to two InGaAs photodiodes (PDs). The LO phase is scanned thanks to a home-made fiber-stretcher (ϕLO).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic of our photonic chip on lithium niobate. The chip includes an SPDC stage, consisting in a periodically poled waveguide (3 cm long with poling period Λ=16.3μm) for squeezing generation at 1560.44 nm, and an integrated directional coupler realizing the interferometric part of the homodyne squeezing detection. The whole chip length is 5 cm. All waveguides are obtained by soft proton exchange [29] and have a width of 6 μm. The 127 μm spacing between the input (output) waveguides is compatible with of-the-shelf fiber-arrays. The homodyne photodiodes are outside the chip and are bulk commercial components.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized noise variances at 2 MHz obtained for a coupled pump power of 40 mW as a function of the LO phase (proportional to the time) and with a sweep time of 1 s. The electrical spectrum analyzer resolution and the video bandwidths are 100 kHz to 30 Hz, respectively.

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