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Cascaded second-order optical nonlinearities in on-chip micro rings

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We demonstrate cascaded Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG), and Sum-Frequency Generation (SFG) in integrated on-chip whispering-gallery resonators (WGRs). These lithium niobate-based WGRs are fabricated using highly-parallel semiconductor manufacturing techniques coupled with specialized polishing as a post-processing step and thus represent a novel means for batch fabrication of this family of non-linear devices. We achieved record high Q-factors for on-chip lithium niobate WGRs reaching up to 3 × 106. Furthermore, we present a flexible but stable coupling scheme, which gives us the opportunity to optimize the coupling regarding the non-linear optical processes we observe.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Fabrication steps of the WGRs. b) Colored SEM image of the WGR, 200 μm in diameter and the ridge width is 7 μm, after RIE. c) Zoomed SEM view of ridge sidewall before polishing. Grey: LN substrate; Blue: 2 μm thick SiO2 layer; Red: 0.7 μm thick Single-crystalline +z-cut LN thin film; Yellow: Cr and Ti layer. d) Sidewall after polishing and removal of Cr and Ti layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of the optical setup for Q-factor measurement and for investigation of nonlinear optical processes. The pump light is polarized perpendicular to the optical axis of the LN thin film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Linewidth δν and coupling contrast K as a function of the voltage applied to the piezo actuator being proportional to the distance between the coupling waveguide and the WGR. The piezo actuator expands approx. 100 nm/V. Inset: Transmission at the output of the coupling waveguide as a function of the detuning of the pump-laser frequency showing a Lorentzian shape.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 a) Spectra of the scattered light from the WGR at 3, 7 and 13 mW pump power. Blue: Data measured with Bluewave spectrometer (measurement range 300 to 1100 nm). Grey: Data recorded by NIRQuest spectrometer (measurement range 900 to 2500 nm). Green inset: Spectrum measured at the coupling waveguide output. b) Microscope images of the WGR taken at 3, 7 and 13 mW pump power.
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