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Suppressing far-field plasmonic irradiation for molecule detection: from gap confinement to energy management

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Abstract

Surface enhanced Raman scattering is considered to a powerful analytic tool for footprint detection of fluorescence molecules, whose mechanism is based on hugely enhanced electromagnetic field near the surface of plasmonic nanostructures resulted from the excitation of surface plasmon. More than one decade before, the detection limit was smartly achieved for single dye molecule confined with the tiny gap named with “hot spots” for Raman scattering, which is related to the suppression of far-field irradiation of plasmonic energy and relies on the precise geometrical control, including namiparticle dimer, nanoparticle-film configuration, shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS), tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Recent progresses in some techniques, such single nanoparticle scattering, photoemission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectrum, scanning near-field optical microscopy, have confirmed the activity of sub-irradiation modes: Fano resonance of an individual nanoparticle and nanostructure array with specific arrangement, high-order plasmonic modes in metallic nanorod. These evidences might open an emerging avenue to confine plasmonic energy within near field for molecule detection.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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