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Optica Publishing Group
  • Applied Spectroscopy
  • Vol. 75,
  • Issue 10,
  • pp. 1251-1261
  • (2021)

Device-Independent Discrimination of Falsified Amoxicillin Capsules Using Heterogeneous Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Devices for Training and Testing of a Support Vector Machine

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Abstract

The objective of this work is to demonstrate the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for common screening of falsified medicines in the field by means of a device-independent universal discrimination approach. In order to provide a useful discrimination tool to protect people from low-quality medical products, not only is a low-cost and portable screening device necessary, but a reference library is also essential. The authors believe that a device-dependent reference library inhibits near-infrared spectroscopy from becoming a popular screening tool. In this study, to develop a device-independent method, discrimination performance is evaluated using different devices for training and testing. The training data sets for the reference library were prepared using a bench-top Fourier transform near-infrared spectrophotometer, and predictive discrimination was performed using the spectral data by a low-cost and portable wavelength dispersive near-infrared spectrophotometer. A near-infrared spectrum-based support vector machine was used for these purposes, but the screening resulted in low accuracy thought to be caused by the intrinsically device-dependent features of the spectra data. Thus, principal component analysis was performed to collect the proper components to discriminate low-quality products from standard products. The principal component score-based support vector machine was able to produce highly accurate results, identifying falsified products with no false positive cases.

© 2021 The Author(s)

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