Abstract

A highly power-efficient silicon (Si) photonic PAM4 transmitter was developed by integrating a Si segmented Mach–Zehnder modulator and a CMOS driver chip. Si p-i-n-type phase shifters are directly driven with a CMOS inverter driver array to realize a low power operation. A passive RC equalizing technique was adopted to extend the modulation bandwidth up to 20 GHz while maintaining a low power consumption. By integrating a passive RC filter within the photonics chip, we achieved a very compact foot print for the transmitter (450 × 950 μm). The fabricated modulator exhibited a low VπL of 0.19 V·cm and a moderate insertion loss of 23.7 dB/cm. The transmitter successfully demonstrated clear eye openings of PAM4 signal up to 56 Gbps together with a record-high-efficiency of 1.59 mW/Gbps. A low bit-error-rate below KP4 FEC limit ( $ <{\text{2.0}}\times {\text{10}}^{-4}$ ) was also confirmed at 50-Gbps PAM4 operation even with an unequalized receiver.

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    [Crossref]
  11. T. Aokiet al., “Low crosstalk simultaneous 16-channel × 25 Gb/s operation of high density silicon photonics optical transceiver,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu. 1. C. 3.
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2016 (2)

T. N. Huynhet al., “Flexible transmitter employing silicon-segmented mach–zehnder modulator with 32-nm CMOS distributed driver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 5129–5136, 2016.

P. Ritoet al., “A monolithically integrated segmented linear driver and modulator in EPIC 0.25-μm SiGe:C BiCMOS platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 4561–4572, 2016.

2015 (1)

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, and T. Usuki, “25-Gb/s broadband silicon modulator with 0.31-Vcm VπL based on forward-biased PIN diodes embedded with passive equalizer,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, 2015, Art. no. .

2013 (1)

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon mach-zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 3556–3562, 2013.

Akiyama, S.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, and T. Usuki, “25-Gb/s broadband silicon modulator with 0.31-Vcm VπL based on forward-biased PIN diodes embedded with passive equalizer,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, 2015, Art. no. .

Aoki, T.

T. Aokiet al., “Low crosstalk simultaneous 16-channel × 25 Gb/s operation of high density silicon photonics optical transceiver,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu. 1. C. 3.

T. Aokiet al., “Low crosstalk simultaneous 12 ch × 25 Gb/s operation of high-density silicon photonics multichannel receiver,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper We1A.2.

Appel, C.

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

Baba, T.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, and T. Usuki, “25-Gb/s broadband silicon modulator with 0.31-Vcm VπL based on forward-biased PIN diodes embedded with passive equalizer,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, 2015, Art. no. .

Dama, B.

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

Gill, D.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

Green, W. M. J.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

Haensch, W.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

Huynh, T. N.

T. N. Huynhet al., “Flexible transmitter employing silicon-segmented mach–zehnder modulator with 32-nm CMOS distributed driver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 5129–5136, 2016.

Imai, M.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, and T. Usuki, “25-Gb/s broadband silicon modulator with 0.31-Vcm VπL based on forward-biased PIN diodes embedded with passive equalizer,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, 2015, Art. no. .

Lakshmikumar, K.

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

Mazzini, M.

M. Mazziniet al., “25 GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, Paper Th.5.B.3.

Muzio, C.

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

Orcutt, J.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

Orcutt, J. S.

J. S. Orcuttet al., “Monolithic silicon photonics at 25 Gb/s,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper Th4H.1.

Petermann, K.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon mach-zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 3556–3562, 2013.

Petousi, D.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon mach-zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 3556–3562, 2013.

Proesel, J.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

Rito, P.

P. Ritoet al., “A monolithically integrated segmented linear driver and modulator in EPIC 0.25-μm SiGe:C BiCMOS platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 4561–4572, 2016.

Shastri, K.

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

Tanaka, S.

S. Tanaka, T. Usuki, and Y. Tanaka, “An accurate SPICE model of forward-biased silicon PIN mach-zehnder modulator for energy-efficient multi-level transmitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., .
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Tanaka, T. Usuki, and Y. Tanaka, “An accurate SPICE model of forward-biased silicon PIN mach-zehnder modulator for energy-efficient multi-level transmitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., .
[Crossref]

Usuki, T.

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, and T. Usuki, “25-Gb/s broadband silicon modulator with 0.31-Vcm VπL based on forward-biased PIN diodes embedded with passive equalizer,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, 2015, Art. no. .

S. Tanaka, T. Usuki, and Y. Tanaka, “An accurate SPICE model of forward-biased silicon PIN mach-zehnder modulator for energy-efficient multi-level transmitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., .
[Crossref]

Voigt, K.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon mach-zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 3556–3562, 2013.

Webster, M.

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

Xiong, C.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

Zimmermann, L.

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon mach-zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 3556–3562, 2013.

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

P. Ritoet al., “A monolithically integrated segmented linear driver and modulator in EPIC 0.25-μm SiGe:C BiCMOS platform,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn., vol. 64, no. 12, pp. 4561–4572, 2016.

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

D. Petousi, L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, and K. Petermann, “Performance limits of depletion-type silicon mach-zehnder modulators for telecom applications,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 31, no. 22, pp. 3556–3562, 2013.

S. Tanaka, T. Usuki, and Y. Tanaka, “An accurate SPICE model of forward-biased silicon PIN mach-zehnder modulator for energy-efficient multi-level transmitter,” J. Lightw. Technol., .
[Crossref]

T. N. Huynhet al., “Flexible transmitter employing silicon-segmented mach–zehnder modulator with 32-nm CMOS distributed driver,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 34, no. 22, pp. 5129–5136, 2016.

Opt. Express (1)

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, and T. Usuki, “25-Gb/s broadband silicon modulator with 0.31-Vcm VπL based on forward-biased PIN diodes embedded with passive equalizer,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, 2015, Art. no. .

Other (7)

T. Aokiet al., “Low crosstalk simultaneous 16-channel × 25 Gb/s operation of high density silicon photonics optical transceiver,” in Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun., Gothenburg, Sweden, 2017, Paper Tu. 1. C. 3.

M. Mazziniet al., “25 GBaud PAM-4 error free transmission over both single mode fiber and multimode fiber in a QSFP form factor based on silicon photonics,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhib., 2015, Paper Th.5.B.3.

T. Aokiet al., “Low crosstalk simultaneous 12 ch × 25 Gb/s operation of high-density silicon photonics multichannel receiver,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2017, Paper We1A.2.

J. S. Orcuttet al., “Monolithic silicon photonics at 25 Gb/s,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Anaheim, CA, USA, 2016, Paper Th4H.1.

http://www. ieee802.org/3/bs/

M. Webster, K. Lakshmikumar, C. Appel, C. Muzio, B. Dama, and K. Shastri, “Low-Power MOS-capacitor based silicon photonic modulators and CMOS drivers,” in Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf., Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2015, Paper W4H.3.

C. Xiong, D. Gill, J. Proesel, J. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “A monolithic 56 Gb/s CMOS integrated nanophotonic PAM-4 transmitter,” in Proc. IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf., 2015, Paper MC3.

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