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Modern technologies for the laser cutting of micro- and optoelectronics materials

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Abstract

Subject of study. This paper analyzes the possibilities of two modern technologies that the authors have developed for high-precision dimensional cutting and microprocessing of such materials as glass, sapphire, and semiconductor materials and that are widely used in micro- and optoelectronics and instrumentation. Method. The technologies thus developed ensure that the border (zone) has few or no defects after being processed and are based on methods of laser-controlled thermocracking (LCT) and laser immersion processing of materials. Main results. This paper describes a physical model of the method of LCT and its advantages over known technologies because the cutting process is free of waste (the cut has zero width) and has a high cutting velocity (up to 1000 mm/s) and increased mechanical strength of the edge. The paper presents the optimum layout for cutting instrumental wafers from various materials into chips by the method of LCT. It describes an original method of cutting holes in glass by the method of LCT and at the same time analyzes the limitations of this method for cutting along a curvilinear contour and cutting out holes. The limitations and drawbacks of cutting holes by means of lasers with supershort pulses are considered, and an alternative solution is proposed that allows the technological limitations to be overcome by means of a new method of laser immersion cutting of materials. A description is given of the role of the heat accumulator formed in the contact zone when brittle nonmetallic materials that are transparent for the laser’s wavelength are processed by the immersion cutting of materials. Chemical thermodynamics is used to estimate the chemical composition of the substance in the heat accumulator when the laser radiation is absorbed. The paper explains the role of the immersion liquid when laser immersion cutting is used to drill microholes less than 200 µm in diameter. The results, features, and advantages of the new technology are presented. Practical significance. Since each of the technologies described here has, along with indisputable advantages, a number of technological limitations, combining these two technologies allows virtually any technological problems in the area of high-precision processing of brittle nonmetallic materials to be solved and opens up new possibilities for developing new technologies and products. In particular, technologies and equipment have been developed for high-precision cutting of glass products of complex curvilinear shape with minimal radius of curvature and increased strength of the edges.

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