Expand this Topic clickable element to expand a topic
Skip to content
Optica Publishing Group

Graphene on Silicon Modulators

Open Access Open Access

Abstract

Graphene is a 2D material with appealing electronic and optoelectronic properties. It is a zero-bandgap material with valence and conduction bands meeting in a single point (Dirac point) in the momentum space. Its conductivity can be changed by shifting the Fermi level energy via an external electric field. This important property determines broadband and tunable absorption at optical frequencies. Moreover, its conductivity is a complex quantity, i.e., Graphene exhibits both electro-absorption and electro-refraction tunability, and this is an intriguing property for photonic applications. For example, it can be combined as an active material for silicon waveguides to realize efficient detectors, switches, and modulators. In this article, we review our results in the field, focusing on graphene- based optical modulators integrated on Silicon photonic platforms. Results obtained in the fabrication of single and double-layer capacitive modulators are reported showing intensity and phase modulation, resilience of the generated signals to chromatic dispersion because of proper signal chirp and operation up to 50 Gb/s.

PDF Article

References

  • View by:

  1. A. K. Geim and A. H. MacDonald, “Graphene: Exploring carbon flatland,” Phys. Today, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 35–41, 2007.
  2. A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.
  3. S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.
  4. A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.
  5. K. I. Bolotina, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun., vol. 146, no. 9–10, pp. 351–355, 2008.
  6. K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Sci., vol. 306, pp. 666–669, 2004.
  7. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.
  8. F. Wang, “Gate-variable optical transitions in Graphene,” Sci., vol. 320, no. 5873, pp. 206–209, 2008.
  9. L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 129, 2008, Art. no. .
  10. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green's functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 103, 2008, Art. no. .
  11. V. Sorianello, “Complex effective index in graphene-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, 2016, Art. no. .
  12. M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom,” Nat. Rev. Mat., vol. 3, pp. 392–414, 2018.
  13. M. Liu, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature, vol. 474, pp. 64–67, 2011.
  14. M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer Graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1482–1485, 2012.
  15. Y. T. Hu, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photon Rev., vol. 10, pp. 307–316, 2016.
  16. C. Alessandri, Broadband 20 Gbit/s Graphene-si Electro-Absorption Modulator, Rome, Italy, ECOC, 2018, 2018, Art. no. .
  17. C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.
  18. H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.
  19. V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 19, 2007, Art. no. .
  20. V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, and M. Romagnoli, “Design optimization of single and double layer graphene phase modulators in SOI,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, pp. 6478–6490, 2015.
  21. Lumerical Inc. [Online]. Available: https://www.lumerical.com/products/, Accessed on: Feb. 25, 2020.
  22. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 1987.
  23. A. Das, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top- gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 210–215, 2008.
  24. C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse- amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica, vol. 3, pp. 1060–1065, 2016.
  25. A. Abraham, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Evaluation of the performances of a silicon optical modulator based on a silicon-oxide-silicon capacitor,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., Paris, France, pp. 3–4, 2014.
  26. V. Sorianello, “Chirp management in silicon-graphene electro absorption modulators,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, pp. 19371–19381, 2017.
  27. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier, 2007.
  28. V. Sorianello, “Optical pre-emphasis by cascaded graphene electro absorption modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 955–958, 15, 2019.
  29. V. Sorianello, “Graphene–silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 12, pp. 40–44, 2018.
  30. T. Cusati, “Electrical properties of graphene-metal contacts,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, 2017, Art. no. .
  31. V. Passi, “Ultralow specific contact resistivity in metal–graphene junctions via contact engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 6, 2019, Art. no. .
  32. W. S. Leong, H. Gong and, J. T. L. Thong, “Low-contact resistance graphene devices with nickeletched-graphene contacts,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 994–1001, 2014.
  33. D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.
  34. L. Wang, “One-dimensional electrical contact to a two-dimensional material,” Sci., vol. 342, pp. 614–617, 2013.
  35. L. Ji, “Design of an electro-absorption modulator based on graphene-on-silicon slot waveguide,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 11, 2019, Art. no. .
  36. S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 100, 2012, Art. no. .
  37. G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .
  38. J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 2158–2182, 2018.
  39. G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.
  40. K. Xu, “High-speed traveling-wave modulator based on Graphene and microfiber,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 4730–4735, 2018.
  41. M. A. Giambra, “High-speed double layer graphene electro-absorption modulator on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express, vol. 27, pp. 20145–20155, 2019.
  42. W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

2019 (4)

V. Sorianello, “Optical pre-emphasis by cascaded graphene electro absorption modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 955–958, 15, 2019.

V. Passi, “Ultralow specific contact resistivity in metal–graphene junctions via contact engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 6, 2019, Art. no. .

L. Ji, “Design of an electro-absorption modulator based on graphene-on-silicon slot waveguide,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 11, 2019, Art. no. .

M. A. Giambra, “High-speed double layer graphene electro-absorption modulator on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express, vol. 27, pp. 20145–20155, 2019.

2018 (6)

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 2158–2182, 2018.

K. Xu, “High-speed traveling-wave modulator based on Graphene and microfiber,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 4730–4735, 2018.

V. Sorianello, “Graphene–silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 12, pp. 40–44, 2018.

M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom,” Nat. Rev. Mat., vol. 3, pp. 392–414, 2018.

C. Alessandri, Broadband 20 Gbit/s Graphene-si Electro-Absorption Modulator, Rome, Italy, ECOC, 2018, 2018, Art. no. .

2017 (2)

T. Cusati, “Electrical properties of graphene-metal contacts,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, 2017, Art. no. .

V. Sorianello, “Chirp management in silicon-graphene electro absorption modulators,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, pp. 19371–19381, 2017.

2016 (4)

C. Xiong, D. M. Gill, J. E. Proesel, J. S. Orcutt, W. Haensch, and W. M. J. Green, “Monolithic 56 Gb/s silicon photonic pulse- amplitude modulation transmitter,” Optica, vol. 3, pp. 1060–1065, 2016.

Y. T. Hu, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photon Rev., vol. 10, pp. 307–316, 2016.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.

V. Sorianello, “Complex effective index in graphene-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, 2016, Art. no. .

2015 (3)

C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.

V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, and M. Romagnoli, “Design optimization of single and double layer graphene phase modulators in SOI,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, pp. 6478–6490, 2015.

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

2014 (1)

W. S. Leong, H. Gong and, J. T. L. Thong, “Low-contact resistance graphene devices with nickeletched-graphene contacts,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 994–1001, 2014.

2013 (1)

L. Wang, “One-dimensional electrical contact to a two-dimensional material,” Sci., vol. 342, pp. 614–617, 2013.

2012 (2)

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 100, 2012, Art. no. .

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer Graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1482–1485, 2012.

2011 (2)

M. Liu, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature, vol. 474, pp. 64–67, 2011.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.

2010 (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.

W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

2009 (1)

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

2008 (5)

F. Wang, “Gate-variable optical transitions in Graphene,” Sci., vol. 320, no. 5873, pp. 206–209, 2008.

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 129, 2008, Art. no. .

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green's functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 103, 2008, Art. no. .

K. I. Bolotina, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun., vol. 146, no. 9–10, pp. 351–355, 2008.

A. Das, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top- gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 210–215, 2008.

2007 (3)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 19, 2007, Art. no. .

A. K. Geim and A. H. MacDonald, “Graphene: Exploring carbon flatland,” Phys. Today, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 35–41, 2007.

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

2004 (1)

K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Sci., vol. 306, pp. 666–669, 2004.

1999 (1)

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 1987.

Abraham, A.

A. Abraham, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Evaluation of the performances of a silicon optical modulator based on a silicon-oxide-silicon capacitor,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., Paris, France, pp. 3–4, 2014.

Adam, S.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier, 2007.

Alessandri, C.

C. Alessandri, Broadband 20 Gbit/s Graphene-si Electro-Absorption Modulator, Rome, Italy, ECOC, 2018, 2018, Art. no. .

Avouris, P.

W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 1987.

Bolotina, K. I.

K. I. Bolotina, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun., vol. 146, no. 9–10, pp. 351–355, 2008.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.

Bostwick, A.

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

Carbotte, J. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 19, 2007, Art. no. .

Cardenas, J.

C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.

Chen, W. X.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

Cusati, T.

T. Cusati, “Electrical properties of graphene-metal contacts,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, 2017, Art. no. .

Dalir, H.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.

Das, A.

A. Das, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top- gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 210–215, 2008.

Falkovsky, L. A.

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 129, 2008, Art. no. .

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.

Geim, A. K.

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

A. K. Geim and A. H. MacDonald, “Graphene: Exploring carbon flatland,” Phys. Today, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 35–41, 2007.

Giambra, M. A.

Gill, D. M.

Gong and, H.

W. S. Leong, H. Gong and, J. T. L. Thong, “Low-contact resistance graphene devices with nickeletched-graphene contacts,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 994–1001, 2014.

Green, W. M. J.

Guinea, F.

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

Gusynin, V. P.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 19, 2007, Art. no. .

Haensch, W.

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green's functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 103, 2008, Art. no. .

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.

Horn, K.

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

Hu, Y. T.

Y. T. Hu, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photon Rev., vol. 10, pp. 307–316, 2016.

Hwang, E. H.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.

Ji, L.

L. Ji, “Design of an electro-absorption modulator based on graphene-on-silicon slot waveguide,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 11, 2019, Art. no. .

Koester, S. J.

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 100, 2012, Art. no. .

Kovacevic, G.

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

Lee, Y. D.

C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.

Leea, D. Y.

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

Leong, W. S.

W. S. Leong, H. Gong and, J. T. L. Thong, “Low-contact resistance graphene devices with nickeletched-graphene contacts,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 994–1001, 2014.

Li, G. L.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

Li, M.

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 100, 2012, Art. no. .

Lipson, M.

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer Graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1482–1485, 2012.

M. Liu, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature, vol. 474, pp. 64–67, 2011.

Liu, X. C.

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

MacDonald, A. H.

A. K. Geim and A. H. MacDonald, “Graphene: Exploring carbon flatland,” Phys. Today, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 35–41, 2007.

Marris-Morini, D.

A. Abraham, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Evaluation of the performances of a silicon optical modulator based on a silicon-oxide-silicon capacitor,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., Paris, France, pp. 3–4, 2014.

Midrio, M.

Neto, A. H. C.

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

Neumayer, D.

W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

Novoselov, K. S.

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Sci., vol. 306, pp. 666–669, 2004.

Ohta, T.

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

Olivier, S.

A. Abraham, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Evaluation of the performances of a silicon optical modulator based on a silicon-oxide-silicon capacitor,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., Paris, France, pp. 3–4, 2014.

Orcutt, J. S.

Pappert, S. A.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

Passi, V.

V. Passi, “Ultralow specific contact resistivity in metal–graphene junctions via contact engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 6, 2019, Art. no. .

Perebeinos, V.

W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

Peres, N. M. R.

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

Phare, C.

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

Phare, C. T.

C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.

Proesel, J. E.

Ra, C. H.

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

Romagnoli, M.

M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom,” Nat. Rev. Mat., vol. 3, pp. 392–414, 2018.

V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, and M. Romagnoli, “Design optimization of single and double layer graphene phase modulators in SOI,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, pp. 6478–6490, 2015.

Rossi, E.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.

Rotenberg, E.

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

Sarma, S. D.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.

Set, S.Y.

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

Seyller, T.

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

Sharapov, S. G.

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 19, 2007, Art. no. .

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 1987.

Sorianello, V.

V. Sorianello, “Optical pre-emphasis by cascaded graphene electro absorption modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 955–958, 15, 2019.

V. Sorianello, “Graphene–silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 12, pp. 40–44, 2018.

V. Sorianello, “Chirp management in silicon-graphene electro absorption modulators,” Opt. Express, vol. 25, pp. 19371–19381, 2017.

V. Sorianello, “Complex effective index in graphene-silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express, vol. 24, 2016, Art. no. .

V. Sorianello, M. Midrio, and M. Romagnoli, “Design optimization of single and double layer graphene phase modulators in SOI,” Opt. Express, vol. 23, pp. 6478–6490, 2015.

Sun, C. K.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.

Thong, J. T. L.

W. S. Leong, H. Gong and, J. T. L. Thong, “Low-contact resistance graphene devices with nickeletched-graphene contacts,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 994–1001, 2014.

Vivien, L.

A. Abraham, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Evaluation of the performances of a silicon optical modulator based on a silicon-oxide-silicon capacitor,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., Paris, France, pp. 3–4, 2014.

Wang, F.

F. Wang, “Gate-variable optical transitions in Graphene,” Sci., vol. 320, no. 5873, pp. 206–209, 2008.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, “One-dimensional electrical contact to a two-dimensional material,” Sci., vol. 342, pp. 614–617, 2013.

Wang, Y.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 2158–2182, 2018.

Xia, Y.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.

Xiong, C.

Xu, K.

K. Xu, “High-speed traveling-wave modulator based on Graphene and microfiber,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 4730–4735, 2018.

Yamashita, S.

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer Graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1482–1485, 2012.

Yoo, W. J.

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

Yu, P. K. L.

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

Yue, D. W.

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

Zhang, X.

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer Graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1482–1485, 2012.

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

ACS Nano (1)

W. S. Leong, H. Gong and, J. T. L. Thong, “Low-contact resistance graphene devices with nickeletched-graphene contacts,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 994–1001, 2014.

ACS Photon. (1)

H. Dalir, Y. Xia, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Athermal broadband graphene optical modulator with 35 GHz speed,” ACS Photon., vol. 3, no. 9, pp. 1564–1568, 2016.

Adv. Mater. Interfaces (1)

V. Passi, “Ultralow specific contact resistivity in metal–graphene junctions via contact engineering,” Adv. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 6, 2019, Art. no. .

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

G. Kovacevic, C. Phare, S.Y. Set, M. Lipson, and S. Yamashita, “Ultra-high-speed graphene optical modulator design based on tight field confinement in a slot waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express, vol. 11, 2018, Art. no. .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. J. Koester and M. Li, “High-speed waveguide-coupled graphene-on-graphene optical modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 100, 2012, Art. no. .

Broadband 20 Gbit/s Graphene-si Electro-Absorption Modulator (1)

C. Alessandri, Broadband 20 Gbit/s Graphene-si Electro-Absorption Modulator, Rome, Italy, ECOC, 2018, 2018, Art. no. .

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 1987.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Ji, “Design of an electro-absorption modulator based on graphene-on-silicon slot waveguide,” IEEE Photon. J., vol. 11, 2019, Art. no. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Sorianello, “Optical pre-emphasis by cascaded graphene electro absorption modulators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 955–958, 15, 2019.

IEEE T Microw. Theory (1)

G. L. Li, C. K. Sun, S. A. Pappert, W. X. Chen, and P. K. L. Yu, “Ultrahigh-speed traveling-wave electroabsorption modulator - design and analysis,” IEEE T Microw. Theory, vol. 47, pp. 1177–1183, 1999.

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green's functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys., vol. 103, 2008, Art. no. .

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Xu, “High-speed traveling-wave modulator based on Graphene and microfiber,” J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 36, no. 20, pp. 4730–4735, 2018.

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter, vol. 19, 2007, Art. no. .

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

L. A. Falkovsky, “Optical properties of graphene,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser., vol. 129, 2008, Art. no. .

Laser Photon Rev. (1)

Y. T. Hu, “Broadband 10 Gb/s operation of graphene electro-absorption modulator on silicon,” Laser Photon Rev., vol. 10, pp. 307–316, 2016.

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer Graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett., vol. 12, pp. 1482–1485, 2012.

W. Zhu, D. Neumayer, V. Perebeinos, and P. Avouris, “Silicon Nitride gate dielectrics and band gap engineering in Graphene layers,” Nano Lett., vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3572–3576, 2010.

Nanoscale (1)

D. W. Yue, C. H. Ra, X. C. Liu, D. Y. Leea, and W. J. Yoo, “Edge contacts of graphene formed by using a controlled plasma treatment,” Nanoscale, vol. 7, pp. 825–831, 2015.

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

A. Das, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top- gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 3, pp. 210–215, 2008.

Nat. Photon. (3)

V. Sorianello, “Graphene–silicon phase modulators with gigahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 12, pp. 40–44, 2018.

C. T. Phare, Y. D. Lee, J. Cardenas, and M. Lipson, “Graphene electro-optic modulator with 30 GHz bandwidth,” Nat. Photon., vol. 9, pp. 511–514, 2015.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photon., vol. 4, pp. 611–622, 2010.

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Bostwick, T. Ohta, T. Seyller, K. Horn, and E. Rotenberg, “Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene,” Nat. Phys., vol. 3, pp. 36–40, 2007.

Nat. Rev. Mat. (1)

M. Romagnoli, “Graphene-based integrated photonics for next-generation datacom and telecom,” Nat. Rev. Mat., vol. 3, pp. 392–414, 2018.

Nature (1)

M. Liu, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature, vol. 474, pp. 64–67, 2011.

Opt. Express (4)

Optica (1)

Phys. Today (1)

A. K. Geim and A. H. MacDonald, “Graphene: Exploring carbon flatland,” Phys. Today, vol. 60, no. 8, pp. 35–41, 2007.

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Witzens, “High-speed silicon photonics modulators,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 2158–2182, 2018.

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

A. H. C. Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 81, pp. 109–162, 2009.

S. D. Sarma, S. Adam, E. H. Hwang, and E. Rossi, “Electronic transport in two-dimensional graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys., vol. 83, pp. 407–470, 2011.

Sci. (3)

F. Wang, “Gate-variable optical transitions in Graphene,” Sci., vol. 320, no. 5873, pp. 206–209, 2008.

K. S. Novoselov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Sci., vol. 306, pp. 666–669, 2004.

L. Wang, “One-dimensional electrical contact to a two-dimensional material,” Sci., vol. 342, pp. 614–617, 2013.

Sci. Rep. (1)

T. Cusati, “Electrical properties of graphene-metal contacts,” Sci. Rep., vol. 7, 2017, Art. no. .

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. I. Bolotina, “Ultrahigh electron mobility in suspended graphene,” Solid State Commun., vol. 146, no. 9–10, pp. 351–355, 2008.

Other (3)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier, 2007.

A. Abraham, S. Olivier, D. Marris-Morini, and L. Vivien, “Evaluation of the performances of a silicon optical modulator based on a silicon-oxide-silicon capacitor,” Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon., Paris, France, pp. 3–4, 2014.

Lumerical Inc. [Online]. Available: https://www.lumerical.com/products/, Accessed on: Feb. 25, 2020.

Cited By

Optica participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from Optica Publishing Group journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Select as filters


Select Topics Cancel
© Copyright 2022 | Optica Publishing Group. All Rights Reserved